Bedding
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Bedding
Bedclothes in a retail store

Bedding, also known as bedclothes[1] or bed linen, is the materials laid above the mattress of a bed for hygiene, warmth, protection of the mattress, and decorative effect. Bedding is the removable and washable portion of a human sleeping environment. Multiple sets of bedding for each bed will often be washed in rotation and/or changed seasonally to improve sleep comfort at varying room temperatures. In American English, the word bedding generally does not include the mattress, bed frame, or bed base (such as box-spring),[2] while in British English it does.[3] In Australian, South African and New Zealand English, bedding is often called manchester.[4]

A set of bedding usually consists of a flat or fitted bed sheet that covers the mattress; a flat top sheet; either a blanket, quilt, or duvet, sometimes with a duvet cover which can replace or be used in addition to the top sheet; and a number of pillows with pillowcases, also referred to as pillow shams. (See § Terminology for more info on all these terms.) Additional blankets, etc. may be added to ensure the necessary insulation in cold sleeping areas. A common practice for children and some adults is to decorate a bed with plush stuffed animals, dolls, and other soft toys. These are not included under the designation of bedding, although they may provide additional warmth to the sleeper.

Bedding materials

Lightweight white, solid-color or printed plain weave, satin weave, or flannel cotton or cotton/polyester blends are the most common types of sheeting, although linen and silk may also be used, including in combination. Goose or duck down and other feathers are frequently used as a warm and lightweight filling in duvets, comforters and quilts. But such fill can protrude in part even from tightly-woven fabric, and be an irritant for many people, particularly those with allergies. Natural and synthetic down alternatives are marketed. Cotton, wool or polyester batting is commonly used as fill in quilts and down alternative comforters. These are less expensive and more easily laundered than natural down or feathers. Synthetic fibers are best in the form of thermofused (where fibers cross) batting. Thick-woven or knitted wool, cotton, acrylic or other microfiber synthetics, or blends of these, are typically used for blankets.

History

Around 3400 BC Egyptian pharaohs had their beds moved off the ground and slept on a raised surface. Bed linen was widely evolved in Egypt. It was seen as a symbol of light and purity, as well as a symbol of prosperity. The Egyptian mummies were often wrapped in bed linen.[5]

Roman Empire mattresses were stuffed with wool, feather, reeds or hay. The beds were decorated with paint, bronze, silver, jewels and gold.

In Japan, mattress types were stuffed with cotton and rolled up for storage during the day.

During the Renaissance, mattresses were stuffed with straw and feathers and then covered with silks, velvets or satin material.

In the 18th century, Europeans began to use bed frames made from cast iron, and mattresses that were made of cotton.

In the 19th century the bed spring was invented, also called the box spring.

In the 20th century United States, consumers bought the inner spring mattress, followed in the 1960s by the water bed (originating on the West Coast), and adoption of Japanese-style futons, air mattresses, and foam rubber mattresses and pillows.

Elements of bedding

Name(s) Image Description
Bed skirt (also bed ruffle, dust ruffle or valance) A decorative piece used to cover the boxspring and legs of the bed. It fits between the mattress and boxspring and hangs to or almost to the floor.
Bedspread (also bedcover) The Ladies' home journal (1948) (14581165309).jpg A bed cover, often decorative, with sides that go to or near the floor. Protects bedding, including pillows, during daytime from dust or other contamination. This does not require a bed skirt, and was particularly popular in North America after World War II. May be removed at night and, if wanted, replaced by a coverlet or duvet cover.
Blanket A woven cloth covering used for warmth.
Bolster Tchefsî.JPG A long, narrow and commonly cylindrical pillow filled with down or feathers. Used for decoration or lumbar support when lying against the headboard.
Boudoir pillows (or breakfast pillows) Small rectangular decorative throw pillows.
Comforter Hotel room Hotel Burgenland in Eisenstadt.JPG A bed cover, used like a blanket, that is filled with batting and is not exceptionally fluffy. It is usually reversible and machine-washable. Comforters are usually paired with a bed skirt to form a complete ensemble, as the comforter's sides only go about halfway to the floor. It differs from a quilt in that the layers of a comforter are not quilted together. (Also see "duvet").
Coverlet Lova, 2007-04-21.jpg Style of bedspread used before the 20th century in America. It usually does not reach to the floor, and does not cover the pillows.
Duvet White-duvet.jpg A soft flat bag traditionally filled with down or feathers, or a combination of both, and used like a blanket. Usually not as thin as a comforter, but may be referred to as a "down comforter".
Duvet cover Folded duvetcover.JPG A decorative and protective covering for a duvet. Most duvet covers have a button or tie closure at one end. Australians use the term doona cover rather than "duvet cover". Usually has 180-400 of thread count.[6]
European pillow (or Continental pillow) Inlett 1.jpg A Euro or Continental pillow--a large square pillow--is a decorative pillow that sits back against the headboard. These are often placed behind the standard size pillow shams as a backdrop, or on top of standard pillows as a coordinated set with a duvet cover.
European sham (or Euro sham or Continental sham) a decorative pillow covering which fits a large 29" × 29" pillow
Feather bed feathers contained within a fabric shell that lies on top of a mattress as a mattress topper. The featherbed will normally have elastic straps or even have a fitted sheet on it so that it fits over a mattress and stays in place.
Flat sheet (or top sheet) The flat sheet is tucked in around the mattress over the fitted sheet with the fourth side, at the head of the bed, undone. Some duvet or comforter sets do not include a top sheet; the duvet/comforter has a cotton bottom that replaces the sheet.
Fitted sheet PrinceGeorge'sParkResidences-bed-NationalUniversityofSingapore-20080107.jpg This is the bottom sheet used to fit tightly over a mattress. Fitted sheets are available in a variety of pocket depths, which refers to the thickness of the mattress. Standard North American pocket size is 7 to 9 inches. Deep pocket corners are usually 10 to 13 inches. Extra deep pocket corners are very generous in size, and range from 14" to as much as 22" and used for extraordinarily high/deep mattresses.
Mattress pad Also known as a mattress topper, or underpad. This is used above the mattress and beneath a bottom sheet to add comfort.
Mattress protector Madrasskydd.JPG This is used immediately above a mattress to protect the mattress. Some also protect the sleeper from allergens.
Neck roll Small cylindrical decorative throw pillows; used for cervical vertebrae support or pure decoration.[7] Neck rolls typically do not have an opening such as a zipper; they are usually sewn closed, although some designs have an integrated opening at the ends.[7]
Pillow shams The Boston Cooking School magazine of culinary science and domestic economics (1905) (14586483270).jpg Decorative coverings for pillows, often designed with trims, ruffles, flanges, or cording. Shams are normally placed behind the pillows used to sleep on, which would be covered with regular pillowcases.
Quilt Brubaker Quilt In Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania (6881535731).jpg Quilts are types of blankets that sandwich batting between two layers of cloth, and then stitch through all of the layers to hold them together. Patchwork quilts piece together multiple pieces of fabric to make one of the outer layers of cloth.
Sleeping pillow HK SW Hollywood Road Police HQ Art Demo 12-2009 bed and pillows in white.JPG The medium-sized rectangular pillow that you lay one's head on when sleeping. A sleeping pillow can come in many sizes such as standard (20" × 26"), Queen (20" × 30"), or King (20" × 36") and differing firmness for back, stomach or side sleeping.
Throw pillow Indiennes en Haute-Provence.jpg A decorative pillow that comes in numerous shapes and sizes.

Terminology

  • Drop: The vertical dimension of a bed skirt.
  • Flanged: Including a decorative band of fabric that is straight or tailored; often used to describe pillows or pillow shams.
  • Hotel bedding: sheets with a high-thread count and unadorned designs, marketed to replicate the bedding materials that hotels use. The expansion of business travel has created a consumer demand for such products.
  • Mako cotton: A high grade of cotton, the long staple or long fibre of Egyptian-grown cotton has more continuous fibres to use when creating threads or yarns. The yarn is smaller in diameter yet stronger than other cottons. Smaller yarn means that more threads per square inch can be used to create stronger fabrics which are lighter in weight yet breathe well. Mako cotton is frequently used to make upscale sheets and towels, which are marketed as a luxury product.
  • Palliasse: Bedding made from strong material, filled with organic material, such as straw or horsehair and used as a mattress.
  • Pima cotton: A high grade of cotton. It has the long staple similar to Mako cotton, which is what gives it its softness and luster, as well as its durability. Its superior characteristics improve with wear. Pima cotton is used to make upscale sheets, towels and clothing, which are marketed as a luxury product. Peru produces the most of the world's Pima cotton.
  • Pleated: Material that is sewn in folds, like a fan.
  • Tailored: Fitted closely, i.e. made to fit the bed exactly.
  • Thread count: The number of threads per square inch or per 10 cm square in a woven fabric.
  • Throw blanket (also throw): A small covering usually used for warmth and decoration; it is usually placed at the end of the bed.

Bedding sizes

Bedding sizes are made with consideration of the dimensions of the bed and mattress for which it is to be used. Bed sizes vary around the world, with countries having their own standards and terminology.

Mattress sizes can be categorized by their country of sale:

UK

Bed measurements Fitted sheet Flat sheet Duvet cover
UK Single
90 cm × 190 cm (35 in × 75 in)
90 × 190 × 41 cm 180 × 260 cm 135 × 200 cm
Euro Single IKEA size
90 cm × 200 cm (35 in × 79 in)
90 × 200 × 41 cm 180 × 260 cm 150 × 200 cm
UK Double
135 cm × 190 cm (53 in × 75 in)
135 × 190 × 41 cm 220 × 260 cm 200 × 200 cm
Euro Double IKEA size
140 cm × 200 cm (55 in × 79 in)
140 × 200 × 41 cm 220 × 260 cm 200 × 200 cm
UK King Size
150 cm × 200 cm (59 in × 79 in)
150 × 200 × 41 cm 225 × 260  cm 225 × 220 cm
Euro King Size IKEA size
160 cm × 200 cm (63 in × 79 in)
160 × 200 × 41 cm 265 × 275 cm 240 × 220 cm
UK Super King Size
183 cm × 200 cm (72 in × 79 in)
183 × 200 × 41 cm 280 × 290 cm 260 × 220 cm
UK Emperor
215 cm × 215 cm (85 in × 85 in)
UK Caesar
245 cm × 220 cm (96 in × 87 in)

European

Bed measurements Fitted sheet Flat sheet Duvet cover
Single
90 cm × 190 cm (35 in × 75 in)
90 × 200 × 20 cm 180 × 260 cm 135 × 200 cm
Double
140 cm × 190 cm (55 in × 75 in)
140 × 190 × 20 cm 220 × 260 cm 200 × 200 cm
King
160 cm × 200 cm (63 in × 79 in)
160 × 200 × 20 cm 265 × 275 cm 240 × 220 cm
Super King
200 cm × 200 cm (79 in × 79 in)
200 × 200 × 20 cm 280 × 290 cm 260 × 220 cm

[]

In Spain, standard mattress widths are 90 cm (35"), 105 cm (41"), 135 cm (53"), 150 cm (59"), 180 cm (71") and standard lengths 190 cm (75") and 200 cm (79"). Sizes are not named but are referred to by their dimensions in cm.

In Denmark standard sizes follow below table

Bed measurements standard long
Single bed 90 cm x 200 cm 90 cm x 220 cm
3/4 bed 140 cm x 200 cm 140 cm x 220 cm
Double bed 180 cm x 200 cm 180 cm x 220 cm

In Ukraine and other Post-Soviet countries, bed measurements are not named but can be linked to standard bedding names. Single bedding sets are not popular, Semi-Double bedding actually used for Single bed.

Standard name Bed measurements
Single bed 80 cm × 190 cm (31 in × 75 in)80 cm × 200 cm (31 in × 79 in)

90 cm × 190 cm (35 in × 75 in)

90 cm × 200 cm (35 in × 79 in)

Single-and-a-half

(Semi-Double) bed

120 cm × 190 cm (47 in × 75 in)120 cm × 200 cm (47 in × 79 in)
Double bed 140 cm × 190 cm (55 in × 75 in)140 cm × 200 cm (55 in × 79 in)

160 cm × 190 cm (63 in × 75 in)

160 cm × 200 cm (63 in × 79 in)

180 cm × 190 cm (71 in × 75 in)

180 cm × 200 cm (71 in × 79 in)

Fitted sheets are not popular as there is a huge variety of bed sizes. Usually they are +20 or +25 cm to cover a mattress. Flat sheet size is also may vary depending on vendor. Sleeping pillows covers are usually 50 x 70 cm, 60 x 60 or 70 x 70 cm. "Euro" prefix is refereed to Western Europe but actually the measurements doesn't match ones for the European countries. "Euro Max" matches "King" size. Bedding measurements:

Bedding name Flat sheet Duvet cover
Semi-Double 145 × 215 cm

175 × 215 cm

145 × 215 cm
Double 195 × 215 cm

200 × 220 cm

175 × 215 cm
Family (Twin) 195 × 215 cm

200 × 220 cm

220 × 240 cm

145 × 215 cm (2 pc.)
Euro (Euro 1) 220 × 240 cm 200 × 220 cm
Euro Max (Euro 2) 240 × 260 cm 220 × 240 cm

North American[8]

Bed measurements Fitted sheet Flat sheet Duvet/quilt cover Comforters
Twin 38 in × 75 in
(97 cm × 191 cm)
39 in × 76 in × 14 in
(99 cm × 193 cm × 36 cm)
72 in × 102 in
(180 cm × 260 cm)
59 in × 79 in
(150 cm × 200 cm)
80 in × 106 in
(200 cm × 270 cm)
Twin XL 38 in × 80 in
(97 cm × 203 cm)
39 in × 80 in × 14 in
(99 cm × 203 cm × 36 cm)
72 in × 114 in
(180 cm × 290 cm)
59 in × 102 in
(150 cm × 260 cm)
80 in × 106 in
(200 cm × 270 cm)
Full 54 in × 75 in
(140 cm × 190 cm)
54 in × 76 in × 15 in
(137 cm × 193 cm × 38 cm)
87 in × 102 in
(220 cm × 260 cm)
80 in × 80 in
(200 cm × 200 cm)
100 in × 106 in
(250 cm × 270 cm)
Queen 60 in × 80 in
(150 cm × 200 cm)
60 in × 80 in × 15 in
(152 cm × 203 cm × 38 cm)
92 in × 108 in
(230 cm × 270 cm)
90 in × 88 in
(230 cm × 220 cm)
106 in × 106 in
(270 cm × 270 cm)
King 76 in × 80 in
(190 cm × 200 cm)
73 in × 80 in × 15 in
(185 cm × 203 cm × 38 cm)
110 in × 114 in
(280 cm × 290 cm)
90 in × 102 in
(230 cm × 260 cm)
112 in × 106 in
(280 cm × 270 cm)
California King 72 in × 84 in
(180 cm × 210 cm)
73 in × 85 in × 15 in
(185 cm × 216 cm × 38 cm)
111 in × 114 in
(280 cm × 290 cm)
94 in × 104 in
(240 cm × 260 cm)
114 in × 106 in
(290 cm × 270 cm)

Australian and New Zealand

Bed measurements Fitted sheet Flat sheet Duvet cover
Single 91 cm × 191 cm
(36 in × 75 in)
91 cm × 193 cm × 40 cm
(36 in × 76 in × 16 in)
180 cm × 254 cm
(71 in × 100 in)
140 cm × 210 cm
(55 in × 83 in)
King Single 106 cm × 203 cm
(42 in × 80 in)
107 cm × 203 cm × 40 cm
(42 in × 80 in × 16 in)
200 cm × 270 cm
(79 in × 106 in)
180 cm × 210 cm
(71 in × 83 in)
Double 137 cm × 191 cm
(54 in × 75 in)
137 cm × 193 cm × 40 cm
(54 in × 76 in × 16 in)
228 cm × 254 cm
(90 in × 100 in)
180 cm × 210 cm
(71 in × 83 in)
Queen 152 cm × 203 cm
(60 in × 80 in)
152 cm × 203 cm × 40 cm
(60 in × 80 in × 16 in)
245 cm × 274 cm
(96 in × 108 in)
210 cm × 210 cm
(83 in × 83 in)
King[a] 183 cm × 203 cm
(72 in × 80 in)
182 cm × 203 cm × 40 cm
(72 in × 80 in × 16 in)
260 cm × 274 cm
(102 in × 108 in)
245 cm × 210 cm
(96 in × 83 in)
  1. ^ Australia only; NZ is smaller

Japanese

Bed measurements Box sheet Flat sheet Duvet cover
Single 97 cm × 195 cm
(38 in × 77 in)
100 cm × 200 cm × 30 cm
(39 in × 79 in × 12 in)
150 cm × 250 cm
(59 in × 98 in)
150 cm × 210 cm
(59 in × 83 in)
Semi-Double 122 cm × 195 cm
(48 in × 77 in)
120 cm × 200 cm × 30 cm
(47 in × 79 in × 12 in)
170 cm × 250 cm
(67 in × 98 in)
165 cm × 200 cm
(65 in × 79 in)
Double 140 cm × 195 cm
(55 in × 77 in)
140 cm × 200 cm × 30 cm
(55 in × 79 in × 12 in)
180 cm × 260 cm
(71 in × 102 in)
190 cm × 210 cm
(75 in × 83 in)
Wide Double 152 cm × 195 cm
(60 in × 77 in)
155 cm × 200 cm × 25 cm
(61 in × 79 in × 10 in)
Unknown Unknown
Queen 170 cm × 195 cm
(67 in × 77 in)
180 cm × 200 cm × 30 cm
(71 in × 79 in × 12 in)
220 cm × 250 cm
(87 in × 98 in)
210 cm × 210 cm
(83 in × 83 in)
King 194 cm × 195 cm
(76 in × 77 in)
200 cm × 200 cm × 30 cm
(79 in × 79 in × 12 in)
225 cm × 275 cm
(89 in × 108 in)
230 cm × 210 cm
(91 in × 83 in)
King Long 194 cm × 205 cm
(76 in × 81 in)
Unknown 260 cm × 280 cm
(100 in × 110 in)
Unknown

See also

References

  1. ^ "Bedding - Definition". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2011.
  2. ^ "Bedclothes - Definition". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2011.
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: "A collective term for the articles which compose a bed, esp. the mattress, feather-bed, or other article lain upon, and the bed-clothes."
  4. ^ "manchester | Definition of manchester in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "Bed linen in Egypt - BeddingEU". BeddingEU. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "Luxury Duvet Covers - Luxury Duvet Covers". Luxury Duvet Covers. Retrieved .
  7. ^ a b Von Tobel, Jackie. "Neck Rolls and Bolsters." The Design Directory of Bedding. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith, 2009. 275.
  8. ^ "Standard Bed Sizes".

External links

  • The dictionary definition of bedding at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Bedding at Wikimedia Commons

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Bedding
 



 

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