?(), ?() |
(Pinyin: pútísàdu? (púsà) )
(Jyutping: pou4 tai4 saat3 do3))
([kraoh k?mo caik])
(byang chub sems dpa)
|Glossary of Buddhism|
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva ( BOH-dee-SUT-v?) is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
In early Buddhism, the term bodhisattva was primarily used to refer specifically to Gautama Buddha (a contemporary of Mahavira) in his former life. The Jataka tales, which are the stories of the Buddha's past lives, depict the various attempts of the bodhisattva to embrace qualities like self-sacrifice and morality. The bodhisattva is also called a pusa. This is one who had achieved Buddhahood but chooses to remain in merciful attachment to the world. In Sanskrit this is called a Avalokitesvara.
According to the Jataka tales, the term "bodhisattva" originally referred to the pre-enlightened practitioner of austerities that surpassed ?r?vakay?na and Pratyekabuddhay?na by far and completed the "Bodhisattvay?na" (Mahay?na Buddhism). Mount Potalaka, for example, is one of Bodhisattvayana. The term for practitioners who have not yet reached Bodhisattvay?na was not fixed, but the terms ?r?vaka-Bodhisattva (?) and Pratyekabuddha-Bodhisattva (?) had already appeared in the ?gamas of early Indian Buddhism.
Mahayana Buddhism did not place much emphasis in honoring the ?r?vakay?na or Pratyekabuddhay?na since they were classified as part of the "Hinayana", but praise of the general Bodhisattvay?na was commonplace. Because Hinayana was disliked and the terms ?r?vaka-Bodhisattva or Pratyekabuddha-Bodhisattva were not widely used, while usage of the general term "bodhisattva" had grown in popularity. Nevertheless, "bodhisattva" retained an implied reference to someone on the path to become an arhat or pratyekabuddha. In contrast, the goal of the bodhisattva path is to achieve samyaksambodhi. 
In early Buddhism, the equivalent Pali term bodhisatta is used in the P?li Canon to refer to Gautama Buddha in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation. During his discourses, to recount his experiences as a young aspirant he regularly uses the phrase "When I was an unenlightened bodhisatta..." The term therefore connotes a being who is "bound for enlightenment", in other words, a person whose aim is to become fully enlightened. In the P?li canon, the bodhisatta is also described as someone who is still subject to birth, illness, death, sorrow, defilement, and delusion. Some of the previous lives of the Buddha as a bodhisattva are featured in the Jataka tales.
According to the Therav?da monk Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path is not taught in the earliest strata of Buddhist texts such as the Pali Nikayas (and their counterparts such as the Chinese ?gamas) which instead focus on the ideal of the Arahant. In later Theravada literature, the term "bodhisatta" is used fairly frequently in the sense of someone on the path to liberation. The later tradition of commentary also recognizes two additional types of bodhisattas: the paccekabodhisatta, who will attain Paccekabuddhahood, and the savakabodhisatta, who will attain enlightenment as a disciple of a Buddha. In the 1st-2nd century BCE Sri Lankan work, the Buddhavamsa, the idea of the person who makes a Bodhisatta vow to become a fully enlightened Buddha out of compassion for all sentient beings is presented. Another related concept outlined in the Buddhavamsa and in another text called the Cariyapitaka is the need to cultivate certain Bodhisatta perfections or paramitas
Kings of Sri Lanka were often described as bodhisattvas, starting at least as early as Sirisanghabodhi (r. 247-249), who was renowned for his compassion, took vows for the welfare of the citizens, and was regarded as a mah?satta (Sanskrit mah?sattva), an epithet used almost exclusively in Mahayana Buddhism. Many other Sri Lankan kings from the 3rd until the 15th century were also described as bodhisattvas and their royal duties were sometimes clearly associated with the practice of the Ten P?ramit?s.
Theravadin bhikkhu and scholar Walpola Rahula stated that the bodhisattva ideal has traditionally been held to be higher than the state of a ?r?vaka not only in Mahayana but also in Theravada Buddhism. He also quotes the 10th century king of Sri Lanka, Mahinda IV (956-972 CE), who had the words inscribed "none but the bodhisattvas will become kings of a prosperous Lanka," among other examples.
But the fact is that both the Theravada and the Mahayana unanimously accept the Bodhisattva ideal as the highest...Although the Theravada holds that anybody can be a Bodhisattva, it does not stipulate or insist that all must be Bodhisattva which is considered not practical.-- Walpola Rahula, Bodhisattva Ideal in Buddhism
Paul Williams writes that some modern Theravada meditation masters in Thailand are popularly regarded as bodhisattvas.
Cholvijarn observes that prominent figures associated with the Self perspective in Thailand have often been famous outside scholarly circles as well, among the wider populace, as Buddhist meditation masters and sources of miracles and sacred amulets. Like perhaps some of the early Mah?y?na forest hermit monks, or the later Buddhist Tantrics, they have become people of power through their meditative achievements. They are widely revered, worshipped, and held to be arhats or (note!) bodhisattvas.
According to Jeffrey Samuels, it "may more accurately portray the differences that exist between the two yanas by referring to Mahayana Buddhism as a vehicle in which the bodhisattva ideal is more universally applied, and to Theravada Buddhism as a vehicle in which the bodhisattva ideal is reserved for and appropriated by certain exceptional people."
Mah?y?na Buddhism is based principally upon the path of a bodhisattva. According to Jan Nattier, the term Mah?y?na ("Great Vehicle") was originally even an honorary synonym for Bodhisattvay?na, or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle." The Aas?hasrik? Prajñ?p?ramit? S?tra contains a simple and brief definition for the term bodhisattva, which is also the earliest known Mah?y?na definition. This definition is given as the following.
Because he has enlightenment as his aim, a bodhisattva-mah?sattva is so called.
The earliest depiction of the Bodhisattva path in texts such as the Ugraparip?cch? S?tra describe it as an arduous, difficult monastic path suited only for the few which is nevertheless the most glorious path one can take. Three kinds of Bodhisattvas are mentioned in the early Mahayana texts: the forest, city, and monastery Bodhisattvas - with forest dwelling being promoted a superior, even necessary path in sutras such as the Ugraparip?cch? and the Samadhiraja sutras. The early Rastrapalapariprccha sutra also promotes a solitary life of meditation in the forests, far away from the distractions of the householder life. The Rastrapala is also highly critical of monks living in monasteries and in cities who are seen as not practicing meditation and morality. The Ratnagunasamcayagatha also says the Bodhisattva should undertake ascetic practices (dhutanga), "wander freely without a home", practice the paramitas and train under a guru in order to perfect his meditation practice and realization of prajnaparamita. These texts seem to indicate the initial Bodhisattva ideal was associated with a strict forest asceticism.
Mah?y?na Buddhism encourages everyone to become bodhisattvas and to take the bodhisattva vows. With these vows, one makes the promise to work for the complete enlightenment of all sentient beings by practicing the six perfections. Indelibly entwined with the bodhisattva vow is merit transference (pariman?).
In the Lotus S?tra, life in this world is compared to people living in a house that is on fire. People take this world as reality pursuing worldly projects and pleasures without realizing that the house is ablaze and will soon burn down (due to the inevitability of suffering). A bodhisattva is one who has a determination to free sentient beings from samsara and its cycle of death, rebirth and suffering. This type of mind is known as the mind of awakening (bodhicitta).
A commonly repeated misconception in Western literature is that bodhisattvas delay their own liberation. This confusion is based on a misreading of several different scriptural concepts and narratives. One of these is the Tibetan teaching on three types of motivation for generating bodhicitta. According to Patrul Rinpoche's 19th century Words of My Perfect Teacher (Kun bzang bla ma'i gzhal lung), a bodhisattva might be motivated in one of three ways. They are:
These three are not types of people, but rather types of motivation. According to Patrul Rinpoche, the third quality of intention is most noble though the mode by which buddhahood actually occurs is the first; that is, it is only possible to teach others the path to enlightenment once one has attained enlightenment oneself. The ritualized formulation of the bodhisattva vow also reflects this order (becoming a buddha so that one can then teach others to do the same). A bodhisattva vow ritual text attributed to N?g?rjuna, of the second-third century CE, states the vow as follows: "Just as the past tath?gata arhat samyaksambuddhas, when engaging in the behavior of a bodhisattva, generated the aspiration to unsurpassed complete enlightenment so that all beings be liberated, all beings be freed, all beings be relieved, all beings attain complete nirvana, all beings be placed in omniscient wisdom, in the same way, I whose name is so-and-so, from this time forward, generate the aspiration to unsurpassed complete enlightenment so that all beings be liberated, all beings be freed, all beings be relieved, all beings attain complete nirvana, all beings be placed in omniscient wisdom." 
Another reason for the misconception that a bodhisattva "delays" liberation is that a bodhisattva rejects the liberation of the ?ravaka and pratyekabuddha, described in Mah?y?na literature as either inferior (as in Asa?ga's fourth century Yog?c?rabh?mi) or nonexistent (as in the Lotus S?tra). That a bodhisattva has the option to pursue such a lesser path, but instead chooses the long path towards buddhahood is one of the five criteria for one to be considered a bodhisattva. The other four are: being human, being a man, making a vow to become a buddha in the presence of a previous buddha, and receiving a prophecy from that buddha.
The six perfections that constitute bodhisattva practice should not be confused with the actual acts of benefiting beings that the bodhisattva vows to accomplish once he or she is a buddha. The six perfections are a mental transformation and need not actually benefit anyone. This is seen in the story of Vessantara, an incarnation of kyamuni Buddha while he was still a bodhisattva, who commits the ultimate act of generosity by giving away his children to an evil man who mistreats them. Vessantara's actual acts do not benefit beings; in fact, he causes direct harm. However, the merit from his perfection of generosity fructifies in his lifetime as kyamuni Buddha when he attains complete enlightenment.
According to many traditions within Mah?y?na Buddhism, on the way to becoming a Buddha, a bodhisattva proceeds through ten, or sometimes fourteen, grounds or bh?mis. Below is the list of the ten bh?mis and their descriptions according to the Avata?saka S?tra and The Jewel Ornament of Liberation, a treatise by Gampopa, an influential teacher of the Tibetan Kagyu school. (Other schools give slightly variant descriptions.)
Before a bodhisattva arrives at the first ground, he or she first must travel the first two of five paths:
The ten grounds of the bodhisattva then can be grouped into the next three paths
The chapter of ten grounds in the Avata?saka S?tra refers to 52 stages. The 10 grounds are:
After the ten bh?mis, according to Mah?y?na Buddhism, one attains complete enlightenment and becomes a Buddha.
Some sutras said a beginner would take 3-22 countless eons (mah?sa?khyeya kalpas) to become a buddha.Pure Land Buddhism suggests buddhists go to the pure lands to practice as bodhisattvas. Tiantai, Huayan, Zen and Vajray?na schools say they teach ways to attain buddhahood within one karmic cycle.
Various traditions within Buddhism believe in specific bodhisattvas. Some bodhisattvas appear across traditions, but due to language barriers may be seen as separate entities. For example, Tibetan Buddhists believe in various forms of Chenrezig, who is Avalokite?vara in Sanskrit, Guanyin in China, Gwan-eum in Korea, Quan Am in Vietnam, and Kannon in Japan. Followers of Tibetan Buddhism consider the Dalai Lamas and the Karmapas to be an emanation of Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion.
K?itigarbha is another popular bodhisattva in Japan and China. He is known for aiding those who are lost. His greatest compassionate vow is:
If I do not go to the hell to help the suffering beings there, who else will go? ... if the hells are not empty I will not become a Buddha. Only when all living beings have been saved, will I attain Bodhi.
The place of a bodhisattva's earthly deeds, such as the achievement of enlightenment or the acts of Dharma, is known as a bodhimaa, and may be a site of pilgrimage. Many temples and monasteries are famous as bodhimaas. Perhaps the most famous bodhimaa of all is the Bodhi Tree under which kyamu?i achieved buddhahood. In the tradition of Chinese Buddhism, there are four mountains that are regarded as bodhimaas for bodhisattvas, with each site having major monasteries and being popular for pilgrimages by both monastics and laypeople. These four bodhimandas are:
4 Great Bodhisattvas (in Chinese Buddhism)
?. ( is short for?)
In this order: Compassion, Wisdom, Vow and Practice.
? ? ? ?
1, Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva short?
Stands for Great Compassion.
2, Manjusri Bodhisattva ? short?
Stands for Great Wisdom.
3, Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva
Stands for Great Vow.
4, Samantabhadra Bodhisattva
Stands for Great Practice.
Standing bodhisattva. Gandh?ra, 2nd-3rd century.
Mural of bodhisattvas. China, Tang Dynasty, 7th-9th century.
?kagarbha Bodhisattva. Japan, 9th century.
9th century CE Srivijayan art, Chaiya, Surat Thani, Southern Thailand.
Avalokite?vara Bodhisattva. India, 11th-12th century.
Mah?sth?mapr?pta Bodhisattva. China, 13th century.
Youthful Mañju?r? Bodhisattva silver statue. Java, 9th century Indonesia.
Mañju?r? Bodhisattva crossing the sea. Japan, 14th century.
K?itigarbha Bodhisattva. Japan, 15th century.
Samantabhadra Bodhisattva. Japan.
Maitreya Bodhisattva. Thiksey Monastery, Ladakh, India.
Shrine with an Image of a Bodhisattva. Brooklyn Museum.