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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences:
Health sciences – are those sciences which focus on health, or health care, as core parts of their subject matter. Because these two subject matter relate to multiple academic disciplines, both STEM disciplines as well as emerging patient safety disciplines (such as social care research) are relevant to current health scientific knowledge.
Health sciences knowledge bases are currently diverse, with intellectual foundations which are sometimes mutually-inconsistent. There is currently an existing bias in the field, towards high valuation of knowledge deriving from controlling views on human agency (as epitomized by the epistemological basis of Randomized Control Trial designs); compare this against the more naturalistic views on human agency taken by research based on Ethnography for example).
Branches of health sciences
Medicine and its branches
Medicine – applied science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Some of its branches are:
- Anesthesiology – branch of medicine that deals with life support and anesthesia during surgery.
- Angiology - branch of medicine that deals with the diseases of the circulatory system
- Audiology - focuses on preventing and curing hearing damage
- Cardiology – branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the heart and the blood vessels.
- Critical care medicine – focuses on life support and the intensive care of the seriously ill.
- Dermatology – branch of medicine that deals with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases.
- Emergency medicine – focuses on care provided in the emergency department.
- Endocrinology – the branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the endocrine system.
- Family medicine
- Gastroenterology – branch of medicine that deals with the study and care of the digestive system.
- General Practice (often called Family Medicine) is a branch of medicine that specializes in primary care.
- Geriatrics – branch of medicine that deals with the general health and well-being of the elderly.
- Gynecology – branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive systems and the breasts.
- Hematology – branch of medicine that deals with the blood and the circulatory system.
- Hepatology – branch of medicine that deals with the liver, gallbladder and the biliary system.
- Infectious disease – branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of infectious disease, especially for complex cases and immunocompromised patients.
- Laboratory medicine – branch of medicine that deals with diagnostic laboratory examinations and tests and their interpretation what make in a medical laboratory.
- Medical physics – branch of medicine and science that deals with applications of physics concepts, theories, and methods to medicine or healthcare.
- Neurology – branch of medicine that deals with the brain and the nervous system.
- Nephrology – branch of medicine which deals with the kidneys.
- Oncology – is the branch of medicine that studies of cancer.
- Ophthalmology – branch of medicine that deals with the eyes.
- Otolaryngology – branch of medicine that deals the ears, nose and throat.
- Pathology - study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
- Pediatrics – branch of medicine that deals with the general health and well-being of children.
- Pharmacology - study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines
- Pulmonology – branch of medicine that deals with the respiratory system.
- Psychiatry – branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
- Radiology – branch of medicine that employs medical imaging to diagnose and treat disease.
- Rheumatology – branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases.
- Splanchnology – branch of medicine that deals with visceral organs.
- Surgery – branch of medicine that uses operative techniques to investigate or treat both disease and injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.
- Urology – branch of medicine that deals with the urinary system and the male reproductive system.
- Veterinary medicine – branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in nonhuman/animals.
History of health sciences
General health sciences concepts