Kathy Hochul
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Kathy Hochul

Kathy Hochul
Kathy Hochul, November 2017.jpeg
Lieutenant Governor of New York

January 1, 2015
GovernorAndrew Cuomo
Robert Duffy
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 26th district

June 1, 2011 - January 3, 2013
Chris Lee
Brian Higgins (redistricted)
8th County Clerk of Erie County

January 1, 2007 - June 1, 2011
DeputyJohn Crangle
David Swarts
Chris Jacobs
Deputy County Clerk of Erie County

January 1, 2003 - December 31, 2006
Kenneth Kruly
John Crangle
Personal details
BornKathleen Courtney
(1958-08-27) August 27, 1958 (age 60)
Buffalo, New York, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Bill Hochul (m. 1984)
Children2
EducationSyracuse University (BA)
Catholic University (JD)

Kathleen Courtney Hochul ( HOH-kull; born August 27, 1958) is an American politician serving as Lieutenant Governor of New York since 2015. She previously served as the U.S. Representative for New York's 26th congressional district from June 1, 2011 to January 3, 2013. She prevailed in the four-candidate special election of May 24, 2011, to fill the seat left vacant by the resignation of Republican Chris Lee,[1][2] and was the first Democrat to represent the district in 40 years.

Hochul served as the County Clerk of Erie County, New York from 2007 until 2011, when she assumed her seat in Congress. Previously, she was a deputy county clerk, a member of the Hamburg Town Board, a practicing attorney, and a legislative aide. Hochul was defeated for reelection to Congress by Republican former Erie County Executive Chris Collins, after being redistricted to the 27th district. She also worked as a government relations specialist with Buffalo-based M&T Bank.[3]

Early life and education

Hochul was born Kathleen Courtney in Buffalo, the second oldest of the six children of John P. "Jack" Courtney, then a college student and clerical worker, and Pat Courtney, a homemaker.[4] Hochul's family struggled financially during her early years and for a time lived in a trailer near a steel plant.[4] By the time Hochul was in college, however, her father was working for the information technology company which he later headed.[4]

Hochul became politically active during her college years at Syracuse University, leading a boycott of the student bookstore over high prices and an unsuccessful effort to name the university stadium after running back Ernie Davis, an alumnus, instead of the Carrier Corporation.[4] She received her B.A. degree from Syracuse in 1980 and her law degree from the Columbus School of Law at Catholic University in Washington, D.C. in 1984.[4][5]

Early political career

After graduating from law school, Hochul began working for a high-powered Washington D.C. law firm, but found the work unsatisfying.[4] She then worked on Capitol Hill as a legal counsel-legislative assistant to U.S. Representative John LaFalce and U.S. Senator Daniel Moynihan, and for the New York State Assembly, before seeking elected office.[6][7]

She became involved in local issues as a booster of small businesses who tried to counteract the effect of Walmart stores.[7] She was elected as the Democratic and Conservative Party candidate to the Hamburg Town Board in November 1994.[8][9] She served on the town board until 2007. While on the board, she led efforts to remove toll booths on parts of the New York State Thruway system.[10][11]

In May 2003, Erie County Clerk David Swarts appointed Hochul as his deputy.[6][8] When Swarts left office in 2007, Governor Eliot Spitzer appointed Hochul to fill the post. Though she had been appointed by Spitzer, she opposed Spitzer's proposal to allow illegal immigrants to apply for a driver's license without producing a social security card.[12] She said that if the proposal went into effect, she would call the sheriff's office to bring such applicants in for questioning.[12] She was elected later in 2007 to fill the remainder of Swarts's term.[13][14] She ran for reelection on four ballot lines: Democratic, Conservative, Independence and Working Families Party, defeating Republican Clifton Bergfeld in November 2010 with 80 percent of the vote.[7][15]

Following Hochul's departure as County Clerk, a backlog of mail was discovered by newly elected County Clerk Chris Jacobs, who later said that $792,571 in checks were found in the backlogged mail.[16] As County Clerk, Hochul had been in the process of implementing a new system for handling real estate documents when she left after winning the special election for the 26th Congressional District. Jacobs said that $9,000 were spent in overtime to deposit checks and file unopened documents that had accumulated in the interim period after Hochul's departure, while the office was adjusting to the new system.[16]

U.S. House of Representatives

2011 special election

Hochul ran in the four-way special election race of May 24, 2011 to fill the seat in New York's 26th congressional district left vacant by the resignation of Republican Chris Lee. She was the Democratic Party and Working Families Party nominee.[17] Hochul's residence in Hamburg, just outside the 26th district, became an issue during her campaign, though it did not legally disqualify her from seeking the seat.[18] One month after her victory, she moved into the district, fulfilling a campaign promise.[18][19]

The Republican and Conservative Party candidate, state legislator Jane Corwin, was at first strongly favored to win in the Republican-leaning district which had sent a Republican to Congress for the previous four decades.[4][20][21] A late April poll had Corwin leading Hochul 36-31 percent; independent Tea Party candidate Jack Davis trailed at 23 percent.[22] An early May poll however, gave Hochul a narrow 35-31 lead,[23] and shortly thereafter the non-partisan Rothenberg Political Report called the race a "toss-up".[24] Additional polling in the days immediately preceding the election had Hochul leading by four and six point margins.[25][26]

In a Washington Post article, it was noted that in the face of a possible victory by Hochul, there was already a "full blown spin war" about the meaning of the results. The article went on to say that, for Democrats, the close race was a result of "House Republicans' budget plan authored by Wisconsin Rep. Paul Ryan -- and, in particular, his proposal to turn Medicare into a voucher program." For Republicans, it was the result of millionaire Jack Davis, who spent "millions to pull votes away from Republican Jane Corwin." The article also posited that one overlooked possibility was that Hochul was "simply a stronger candidate" than Corwin.[27] The seat was viewed as a difficult one to obtain for a Democrat, and "only a really solid campaigner could make it happen."[27]

Hochul's political strength stemmed from starting her career as an aide to Senator Daniel Moynihan, who was "one of the most admired politicians in New York history." She has been described as sweet and earnest. She was described as a successful campaigner, but as someone who can do that by "being not the least bit slick." Hochul was linked to tangible local accomplishments, like when she "broke with then Gov. Eliot Spitzer (D) on license plates for illegal immigrants -- and got a write-up in the New York Times for it."[27]

Hochul's victory was almost universally viewed as astonishing, given that the district is heavily Republican and that Corwin outspent her almost 2-1.

The campaign featured a number of negative television ads, with nonpartisan FactCheck accusing both sides of "taking liberties with the facts." In particular, FactCheck criticized the Democrats' ads for claiming that the Republican candidate would "essentially end Medicare", even though the plan would leave Medicare intact for current beneficiaries.[21] The organization also faulted the Republicans' for ads portraying Hochul as a puppet of former U.S. House Speaker Pelosi, and for claiming that Hochul planned to cut Social Security and Medicare benefits.[21]

Campaign funding

Hochul was endorsed by EMILY's List, a political action committee that supports pro-choice Democratic women candidates.[28][29] She was the fifth largest recipient of EMILY's List funds in 2011, receiving more than $27,000 in bundled donations from the organization.[29] The Democrat and Chronicle endorsed Hochul "for her tenacity and independence",[30] while The Buffalo News endorsed her for her positions on preserving Medicare and her record of streamlining government.[31]

Victory

Hochul defeated Corwin 47 to 43 percent in the special election held on May 24, with Jack Davis receiving 9 percent, and Green Party candidate Ian Murphy receiving 1 percent of the vote.

On the day of the election, a contributor for Forbes argued that Hochul's impending victory would be "a serious blow to the GOP agenda, and, more specifically, Paul Ryan's budget plan that would end Medicare as we know it."[32]

When Democratic strategists were not considering Hochul a serious candidate, EMILY's List and the Working Families Party backed her. Hochul achieved success widely due to her efforts in battling the Republican budget, which aimed to makes cuts to Medicaid and privatize Social Security.[33]

2012 election

In the 2012 election, Hochul's district was renumbered as the 27th district. She lost her re-election bid to Collins by a 51% to 49% margin. She was endorsed by the National Rifle Association.[34]

Tenure

Hochul's official House portrait

In Hochul's first few weeks in office, she co-sponsored bills with Brian Higgins to streamline the passport acquisition process. She also met with the President about the economy and job creation and introduced a motion in the House to restore the Republican cuts to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. She also looked for ways to reduce the federal budget deficit, open to reducing Medicaid spending as long as it wasn't in the form of block grants offered to states, as proposed in the GOP budget blueprint. She also spoke with President Obama about ending tax breaks for oil companies and protecting small businesses.[35]

While campaigning for Congress, Hochul defined herself as an "independent Democrat".[7] In an interview with the Lockport Union-Sun & Journal, she cited as examples of her independence her opposition to Spitzer's drivers' license program for illegal immigrants and her opposition to Governor David Paterson's proposal in 2010 to raise revenue by requiring all vehicle owners to buy new license plates.[7]

Kathy Hochul was one of 17 Democrats who joined with Republicans in supporting a resolution finding Attorney General Eric Holder in contempt of Congress relating to the ATF gunwalking scandal, a vote on which the National Rifle Association, which supported the resolution, announced it would be scoring lawmakers.[36] Later in 2012, Hochul "trumpeted" her endorsement from the NRA and noted that she was just one of two New York Democrats to receive the NRA's support.[37]

Trade

On September 17, 2011, Robert J. McCarthy noted that Hochul and her election opponent Jack Davis agreed on their opposition to free trade. "We saw what happened with NAFTA; the promises never materialized," she said of the North American Free Trade Agreement. "If I have to stand up to my own party on this, I'm willing to do so."[38]

Energy

During her congressional campaign, Hochul favored offering incentives to develop alternative energy.[10]

In June 2011, Hochul opposed legislation that would cut funding for the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) by 44 percent, on the ground that the CFTC curbs speculation in oil and the resulting layoffs of CFTC personnel would "make it easier for Big Oil companies and speculators to take advantage of ... consumers".[39]

Fiscal issues

While running for the U.S. House, Hochul supported raising taxes on those making more than $500,000 per year.[10] She opposed the new free trade agreements that were then under consideration, saying, "We don't need to look any further than Western New York to see that these policies do not work." She believes that free trade agreements such as NAFTA and CAFTA have suppressed U.S. wages and benefits and caused job loss in the U.S.[40]

Hochul called the summer 2011 debt ceiling issue "a distraction" to which the American people should not be subjected.[41][clarification needed]

Hochul acknowledged during her campaign that substantial cuts must be made in the federal budget, and said she would consider cuts in all entitlement programs. However, she expressed opposition to the Republican plan that would re-form Medicare into a voucher system, saying it "would end Medicare as we know it".[10][42] She said money could be saved in the Medicare program by eliminating waste and purchasing prescription drugs in bulk.[10] She also said that the creation of more jobs would alleviate Medicare and Social Security budget shortfalls due to increased collections of payroll taxes.[10]

On November 19, 2011, Brian Tumulty of WQRZ reported that Hochul had voted for a balanced budget amendment, which she called "a bipartisan solution.[43]

Health care

Hochul expressed support for the 2010 health care reform legislation passed by the 111th Congress and said during her campaign that she would not vote to repeal it.[10] In response to a constituent's question during a town-hall meeting in February 2012, she was booed for saying that the federal government was not looking to the Constitution under the Obama administration requirement that non-religious employers provide their workers with insurance coverage for birth control.[44][45] A spokesman later stated that she'd misspoken, but did not clarify her answer.[45]

Social issues

Hochul has said she is pro-choice on abortion.[46] She supports civil marriage for same-sex couples, with no requirements on religious institutions.[47]

Committee assignments

Community activities

Hochul is a founder and a member of the Board of Directors of Kathleen Mary House, a transitional home for women and children who are victims of domestic violence.[40][48] She was also co-founder of the Village Action Coalition, and a member of the Board of Trustees at Immaculata Academy in Hamburg.[40]

Personal life

She is married to William Hochul, the former United States Attorney for the Western District of New York, and current general counsel for Delaware North.[49] They reside in Buffalo, New York, and are the parents of two children, William III and Caitlin.[40][49]

Lieutenant Governor of New York

Campaign and election

Hochul with assembly majority leader Joseph Morelle at the 2014 Labor Day parade in Rochester, New York

Robert Duffy announced in 2014 that he would not be a candidate for reelection as Lieutenant Governor.[50]Andrew Cuomo, the incumbent Governor, was running for a second term. After Duffy's announcement, Cuomo named Hochul as his choice for the Lieutenant Governor nomination.[51] On May 22, 2014 the delegates to the state Democratic convention formally endorsed Hochul for Lieutenant Governor.[52]

In September Cuomo and Hochul won their Democratic primary elections.[53] Cuomo and Hochul were also the nominees of the Working Families Party.[54] (In New York, candidates for Governor and Lieutenant Governor are nominated separately, but run as a ticket in the general election.)[55] In November the Cuomo/Hochul ticket won the general election.[56] Hochul was sworn in as Lieutenant Governor on January 1, 2015.[57]

2018 election

In the Democratic primary, Hochul faced Jumaane Williams, Deputy Leader of the New York City Council.[58] Williams was endorsed by The New York Times,[59] The New York Progressive Action Network,[60] Citizens Action of New York,[61]The People for Bernie Sanders,[62] and Our Revolution.[63] Hochul defeated Williams, 53.3%-46.7%.[64]

Tenure

Hochul was tasked by Governor Cuomo to chair the 10 regional economic development councils which are the centerpiece of the administration's economic development plan.[65] The goal of the councils is to build upon the unique strengths of each region to develop individualized long-term strategic plans.

Governor Cuomo appointed Lieutenant Governor Hochul to chair the Task Force on Heroin and Opioid Abuse and Addiction. In this capacity, she convened eight outreach sessions across New York State to hear from experts and community members in search of answers to the heroin crisis and works to develop a comprehensive strategy for New York.[66]

Hochul spearheaded Governor Cuomo's Enough is Enough campaign to combat sexual assault on college campuses beginning in 2015 hosting and attending more than 25 events. As the highest ranking female elected official in New York State, she continues to be a champion for women and families across the state.[67][68][69] In March 2016, Governor Cuomo named her to the New York State Women's Suffrage 100th Anniversary Commemoration Commission.[70]

Representing Governor Cuomo across the state, Hochul tours main streets, meets local business owners, visits college campuses and meets regularly with mayors, supervisors and other community leaders. The Lieutenant Governor builds support for the Governor's initiatives including the minimum wage increase, paid family leave, ethics reform and infrastructure investment.

As Lieutenant Governor, Hochul is liaison to New York's federal representatives in Washington, D.C.[71]

Electoral history

Special election May 24, 2011,
U.S. House of Representatives, NY-26[72][73]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Kathy Hochul 47,519 42.58
Working Families Kathy Hochul 5,194 4.65
Republican Jane Corwin 35,721 32.01
Conservative (N.Y.) Jane Corwin 9,090 8.15
Independence Jane Corwin 2,376 2.13
Tea Party Jack Davis 10,029 8.99
Green Ian Murphy 1,177 1.05
Total votes 111,597 100.0
Turnout 25
General election November 6, 2012

U.S. House of Representatives, NY-27

Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Chris Collins 137,250 43.24
Conservative Chris Collins 23,970 7.55
Democratic Kathy Hochul 140,008 44.11
Working Families Kathy Hochul 16,211 5.11
Total Votes 317,439 100.00
Primary election September 9, 2014

Lieutenant Governor of New York

Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Kathy Hochul 329,089 60.20
Democratic Timothy Wu 217,614 39.80
Total votes 546,703 100.00

See also

References

  1. ^ Confessore, Nicholas; Vitello, Paul (November 4, 2007). "License Issue Figures Large in Local Races". The New York Times.
  2. ^ Camia, Catalina (June 1, 2011). "Democrat Kathy Hochul takes her House seat after Medicare fight". USA Today. Retrieved 2011.
  3. ^ Kline, Allissa (February 20, 2013). "M&T hires Kathy Hochul". Buffalo Business First. American City Business Journals. Retrieved 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Hernandez, Raymond (May 29, 2011). "Her Inheritance: An Eagerness to Serve". New York Times. Retrieved 2011.
  5. ^ McCarthy, Robert J. (December 7, 2010). "Hochul's profile going high, but why?". The Buffalo News.
  6. ^ a b "EC Clerk appoints top deputy". Buffalo Business First. May 13, 2003. Retrieved 2011.
  7. ^ a b c d e Miles, Joyce (May 20, 2011). "Kathy Hochul defines herself 26th District Special Election". Lockport Union-Sun & Journal.
  8. ^ a b Staba, David (June 1, 2005). "How Should You Pay a Higher Toll? How About Coin by Coin by Coin?". The New York Times.
  9. ^ Buffalo News staff reporter (November 9, 1994). "Jann retakes post as Marilla Supervisor" (pay per view). The Buffalo News. Kathleen Courtney-Hochul, the Democratic and Conservative parties candidate, was elected to fill an unexpired term on the Town Board with 57 percent of the vote.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Terreri, Jill (May 17, 2011). "Candidates in 26th District differ on more than Medicare". Democrat and Chronicle.
  11. ^ McCarthy, Robert J. (April 14, 2011). "Davis, Hochul to air new ads". The Buffalo News.
  12. ^ a b Sharon Osorio (October 15, 2007). "Driver's License Debate Continues". WKBW News 7. Retrieved 2011.
  13. ^ "Hochul makes it official". Lockport Union-Sun & Journal. lockportjournal.com. March 19, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  14. ^ Spina, Matthew (November 3, 2010). "Hochul Re-elected County Clerk". The Buffalo News. Retrieved 2011.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "2010 Designating Petitions Filed". Erie County, NY Board of Elections. Retrieved 2011.
  16. ^ a b Gee, Denise Jewell (May 4, 2012). "County clerk says office backlog should be eliminated within weeks". The Buffalo News. buffalonews.com. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  17. ^ Miller, Sean J. (March 19, 2011). "Dems tap Hochul for N.Y. special election". The Hill. Retrieved 2011.
  18. ^ a b Hernandez, Raymond (May 24, 2011). "As Contested District Votes, a Candidate Can't". The Caucus Blogs. The New York Times.
  19. ^ "Rep. Kathy Hochul moves into her district". Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester, New York. July 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  20. ^ Weiner, Rachel (February 25, 2011). "Why NY-26 (probably) won't be another GOP civil war". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011.
  21. ^ a b c "A Test Market for Spin". FactCheck.org. Retrieved 2011.
  22. ^ Weiner, Rachel (April 29, 2011). "Poll: A real race in New York special election". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011.
  23. ^ Isenstadt, Alex (May 9, 2011). "Dems take fresh aim at N.Y.-26". Politico. Retrieved 2011.
  24. ^ "New York 26: Move to Toss-Up/Tilt Democratic". The Rothenberg Report. May 16, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  25. ^ "Siena Poll: Hochul Leads Corwin, 42% to 38% Among Likely Voters". Siena Poll. May 21, 2011. Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  26. ^ "Hochul leads Corwin by 6" (PDF). Public Policy Polling. May 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  27. ^ a b c Weiner, Rachel (May 23, 2011). "Is Kathy Hochul just a better candidate?". Washington Post? washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2018.
  28. ^ Peoples, Steve (April 22, 2011). "EMILY's List Backs Hochul in N.Y. Special".
  29. ^ a b "EMILY's List". Open Secrets. Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved 2011.
  30. ^ Editorial board (May 14, 2011). "Hochul is best for sprawling 26th Congressional District". Democrat and Chronicle.
  31. ^ Editorial board (May 15, 2011). "Hochul for Congress". Buffalo News. Retrieved 2011.
  32. ^ Ungar, Rick (May 24, 2011). "Democrat Kathy Hochul Projected Winner In New York 26th Congressional District". Forbes.
  33. ^ "Kathy Hochul Wins NY-26 as Paul Ryan's Medicare Plan Costs the GOP a House Seat". The Nation.
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  35. ^ Cogan, Marin (June 22, 2011). "Remember Kathy Hochul?". Politico. politico.com. Retrieved 2018.
  36. ^ Pillifant, Reid (June 28, 2012). "In 'fast and furious' session, upstate Democrats Hochul and Owens vote to hold Holder in contempt". Politico. politico.com. Retrieved 2018.
  37. ^ Benjamin, Liz (October 3, 2012). "NRA Backs Hochul". State of Politics. nystateofpolitics.com. Retrieved 2018.
  38. ^ McCarthy, Robert J. (September 17, 2011). "Hochul, in visit with Davis, voices anti-free trade stance". The Buffalo News. buffalonews.com. Retrieved 2011.
  39. ^ Zremski, Jerry (June 17, 2011). "Hochul sees first legislation defeated". The Buffalo News. Retrieved 2011.
  40. ^ a b c d "Kathy Courtney Hochul-Biography". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved 2011.
  41. ^ "Everybody's Column". The Buffalo News. August 8, 2011.
  42. ^ "Hochul Urges Congress to Reject Ryan Budget Proposal that Would Decimate Medicare". Project Vote Smart. April 21, 2011.
  43. ^ "Hochul Splits with Party on Balanced Budget Amendment". WGRZ.
  44. ^ "Hochul under fire for town meeting comments". The Daily News Online. March 1, 2012.
  45. ^ a b Holmes, Melissa (March 2, 2012). "Hochul Birth Control Controversy Won't Go Away". WGRZ.com.
  46. ^ McCarthy, Robert J. (May 20, 2011). "Social issues help clarify House race". The Buffalo News.
  47. ^ "The candidates on the issues". Buffalo News. May 21, 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  48. ^ "The Kathleen Mary House...A place of new beginnings". The Kathleen Mary House. Retrieved 2011.
  49. ^ a b Craig, Gary (March 19, 2011). "Democrats choose Kathy Hochul to run in 26th". Democrat and Chronicle. Rochester, NY. Retrieved 2011.
  50. ^ Silverman, Justin Rocket (May 12, 2014). "Robert Duffy will not seek reelection as lieutenant governor, so are you up for it?". New York Daily News.
  51. ^ Kaplan, Thomas (May 21, 2014). "Cuomo Picks Ex-Congresswoman as Running Mate: Kathy Hochul to Be Democratic Candidate for Lieutenant Governor in New York". New York Times.
  52. ^ Newberg, Rich (May 22, 2014). "Hochul addresses Democrats at convention". WIVB-TV. Buffalo, New York.
  53. ^ Kaplan, Thomas (September 9, 2014). "Cuomo Defeats Teachout, Liberal Rival, in the Democratic Primary". New York Times.
  54. ^ "Working Families Party: Stories Working Families Party urges reluctant members to vote on its line for Cuomo, and Cuomo's new women's political party serves multiple purposes". WRVO Public Media. Retrieved 2014.
  55. ^ Martin, Longman (May 29, 2014). "As Goes New York, So Goes the Nation". Washington Monthly.
  56. ^ "Gov. Cuomo Wins 2nd Term, Becomes 1st Democratic Gov. Since His Father To Win Re-Election In NY". CBS New York. November 4, 2014.
  57. ^ "2014 General Election Results". National Governors Association. November 15, 2014.
  58. ^ "Jumaane Williams". Our Revolution. Retrieved 2018.
  59. ^ "Opinion - Jumaane Williams Is Democrats' Best Bet for Lieutenant Governor". Retrieved 2018.
  60. ^ "Candidates". Retrieved 2018.
  61. ^ "Candidate Endorsements - Citizen Action of New York". citizenactionny.org. Retrieved 2018.
  62. ^ "Endorsements". Retrieved 2018.
  63. ^ "Jumaane Williams". Our Revolution. Retrieved 2018.
  64. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/09/13/us/elections/results-new-york-primary-elections.html
  65. ^ "Hochul makes history for herself and for Western New York". November 4, 2014. Retrieved 2018.
  66. ^ "Kathy Hochul to lead 23-member anti-heroin task force". Retrieved 2018.
  67. ^ "Lt. Gov. Kathy Hochul gives 'Enough is Enough' presentation at SU - The Daily Orange - The Independent Student Newspaper of Syracuse, New York". dailyorange.com. Retrieved 2018.
  68. ^ Express, Jasmine Willis Genesee Country. "'Enough is Enough' on campus". Retrieved 2018.
  69. ^ "Lieutenant Governor Kathy Hochul Brings 'Enough is Enough' Message to College Campuses - SUNY Geneseo". www.geneseo.edu. Retrieved 2018.
  70. ^ "Governor Cuomo Announces Launch of New York State Women's Suffrage Commission". August 22, 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  71. ^ "The Official Website of Governor Andrew M. Cuomo". Governor Andrew M. Cuomo. Retrieved 2018.
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  73. ^ "Official Election Results from the New York State Board of Elections" (PDF). Retrieved 2018.

External links

Civic offices
Preceded by
Kenneth Kruly
Deputy County Clerk of Erie County
2003-2007
Succeeded by
John Crangle
Preceded by
David Swarts
County Clerk of Erie County
2007-2011
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Chris Lee
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 26th congressional district

2011-2013
Succeeded by
Brian Higgins
Political offices
Preceded by
Robert Duffy
Lieutenant Governor of New York
2015-present
Incumbent

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