|146,128 (2013 est.)|
|Serbian Orthodox Church|
Because of Serbian medieval history and monuments, Kosovo has long been called the "Serbian Jerusalem". The Medieval Monuments in Kosovo, founded by the Nemanji? dynasty, is a combined World Heritage Site consisting of four Serbian Orthodox Christian churches and monasteries.
The region of Kosovo was an important part of the 14th-century Serbian Empire, with Prizren serving as capital, until its subsequent occupation by the Ottomans following the Battle of Kosovo (1389), considered one of the most notable events of Serbian history. After centuries of foreign Ottoman rule, Kosovo was annexed by the Kingdom of Serbia in 1912, following the First Balkan War. It was then part of Serbia (and later Yugoslavia), until the 1999 Kosovo War resulted in the de facto separation of Kosovo from the rest of Serbia, followed by its secession from Serbia in 2008 which is not wholly and legally recognised by the international community.
Most of Kosovo's pre-1999 Serb population relocated to central Serbia and Montenegro following ethnic cleansing campaigns while many of the remaining Serbs outside North Kosovo live in small isolated communities, called enclaves.
The formal names for the Serb community in Kosovo is "Serbs in Kosovo and Metohija" (Srbi na Kosovu i Metohiji) or "Serbs of Kosmet" (Kosmetski Srbi), in use by the community itself and the Serbian government. They are also referred to as Serbs of Kosovo (Serbian: ?/Kosovski Srbi) or Serbs in Kosovo (Serbian: ? /Srbi na Kosovu, Albanian: Serbët në Kosovë). The term "Kosovo Serbs" is predominantly used in English. They are known by the demonym Kosovci, though this is properly used for inhabitants of the region of Kosovo (in the narrow sense - centred around the Kosovo Field), along with Metohijci (of Metohija).
Sclaveni raided and settled the western Balkans in the 6th and 7th century. The Serbs are mentioned in De Administrando Imperio as having settled the Balkans during the reign of Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641), however, research does not support that the Serbian tribe was part of this later migration (as held by historiography) rather than migrating with the rest of Early Slavs. Through linguistical studies, it is concluded that the Early South Slavs were made up of a western and eastern branch, of parallel streams, roughly divided in the Timok-Osogovo-?ar line. Parts of northwestern Kosovo were part of the Serbian Principality. In the late 9th century the region was seized by the First Bulgarian Empire, while the region switched hands between the Byzantines and Bulgarians until the Byzantine restoration of 1018-19. In 1040-41 a massive Slavic rebellion broke out, which included Kosovo. Another rebellion broke out in 1072, in which Serbian prince Constantine Bodin was crowned Emperor of Bulgaria at Prizren, however, despite some initial success, Bodin was eventually captured in southern Kosovo and the rebellion was suppressed.Vukan, the new independent Serbian Grand Prince, began raiding Byzantine territories, first in Kosovo, advancing into Macedonia (1091-95). He broke several peace treaties concluded personally with the Byzantine Emperor at Zve?an and Lipljan, until finally submitting in 1106.
In 1166, a Serbian prince, Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanji? dynasty, asserted independence after an uprising against the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus. Nemanja defeated his brother, Tihomir, at Pantino near Pauni, and drowned him in the Sitnica river. Nemanja was eventually defeated and had to return some of his conquests, and vouched to the Emperor that he would not raise his hand against him. In 1183, Stefan Nemanja embarked on a new offensive allied with the Kingdom of Hungary after the death of Manuel I Komnenos in 1180, which marked the end of Byzantine domination over the region of Kosovo. Nemanja's son, Stefan, ruled a realm reaching the river of Lab in the south. Stefan conquered all of Kosovo by 1208, by which time he had conquered Prizren and Lipljan, and moved the border of his realm to the ?ar mountain. In 1217, Stefan was crowned King of Serbs, due to which he is known in historiography as Stefan "the First-Crowned".
In 1219, the Serbian Church was given autocephaly, with Hvosno, Prizren and Lipljan being the Orthodox Christian eparchies with territory in modern-day Kosovo. By the end of the 13th century, the centre of the Serbian Church was moved to Pe? from ?i?a. King Stefan Du?an founded the great Monastery of the Holy Archangel near Prizren in 1342-52. The Serbian Kingdom was elevated into an Empire in 1345-46. Stefan Du?an received John VI Kantakuzenos in 1342 at Pauni to discuss an alliance against the Byzantine Emperor. In 1346, the Serbian Archbishopric at Pe? was upgraded into a Patriarchate, but it was not recognized before 1375. After the death of Du?an in 1355, the fall of the Serbian Empire began, with feudal disintegration during the reign of his successor, Stefan Uro? V (r. 1355-71). Parts of Kosovo became domain of Vuka?in Mrnjav?evi?, but Vojislav Vojinovi? expanded his demesne further onto Kosovo. The armies of Vuka?in from Pristina and his allies defeated Vojislav's forces in 1369, putting a halt to his advances. After the Battle of Maritsa on 26 September 1371 in which the Mrnjav?evi? brothers lost their lives, ?ura? I Bal?i? of Zeta took Prizren and Pe? in 1372. A part of Kosovo became the demesne of the Lazar of Serbia.
The Ottoman Empire invaded the realm of Prince Lazar on 28 June 1389, at the Battle of Kosovo near Pristina, at Gazimestan. The Serbian army was led by Prince Lazar who led 12,000-30,000 men against the Ottoman army of 27,000-40,000 men. Lazar was killed in battle, while Sultan Murad also lost his life, believed to have been assassinated by Serbian knight Milo? Obili?. The outcome of the battle is deemed inconclusive, with the new Sultan Bayezid having to retreat to consolidate his power. Vuk Brankovi? came to prominence as the local lord of Kosovo, though he was an Ottoman vassal at times, between 1392 and 1395.
Another battle occurred between the Hungarian troops supported by the Albanian ruler George Kastrioti Skanderbeg on one side, and Ottoman troops supported by the Brankovi? dynasty in 1448. Skanderbeg's troops which were going to help John Hunyadi were stopped by the Brankovi?'s troops, who was more or less an Ottoman vassal. Hungarian King John Hunyadi lost the battle after a 2-day fight, but essentially stopped the Ottoman advance northwards. Kosovo then became vassalaged to the Ottoman Empire, until its direct incorporation as the Vilayet of Kosovo after the final fall of Serbia in 1459.
The Ottomans brought Islamisation with them, particularly in towns, and later also created the Kosovo Vilayet as one of the Ottoman territorial entities. During the Islamisation many Churches and Holy Orthodox Christian places were razed to the ground or turned into mosques. The big Monastery of Saint Archangels near Prizren was torn down at the end of the 16th century and the material used to build the Mosque of Sinan-pasha, an Islamized Albanian, in Prizren. Although the Serbian Orthodox Church was officially abolished in 1532, an Islamized Serb from Bosnia, Grand Vizier Mehmed-pasha Sokolovi? influenced the restoration of the Serbian Patriarchate of Pe? in 1557. Special privileges were provided, which helped the survival of Serbs and other Christians on Kosovo.
Kosovo was taken by the Austrian forces during the War of the Holy League (1683-1698). In 1690, the Serbian Patriarch of Pe? Arsenije III, who previously escaped a certain death, led 37,000 families from Kosovo, to evade Ottoman wrath since Kosovo had just been retaken by the Ottomans. The people that followed him were mostly Serbs, but there were numerous Orthodox Albanians and others too. 20,000 Serbs abandoned Prizren alone. Due to the oppression from the Ottomans, other migrations of Orthodox people from the Kosovo area continued throughout the 18th century. It is also noted that some Serbs adopted Islam and some even gradually fused with the predominantly Albanians and adopted their culture and even language. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced the Serbs as the dominating nation of Kosovo.
In 1766 the Ottomans abolished the Serbian Patriarchate of Pe? and the position of Christians on Kosovo was greatly reduced. All previous privileges were lost and the Christian population had to suffer the full weight of the Empire's extensive and losing wars, even to take the blame for the losses.
Albanians formed the nationalistic League of Prizren in Prizren in the late 19th century. The Aim of the League of Prizren was to unite the four Albanian-inhabited Vilayets by merging the majority of Albanian inhabitants within the Ottoman Empire into one Albanian Vilayet. However at that time Serbs were opposing the Albanian nationalism along with Turks and other Slavs in Kosovo, which disabled the Albanian movements to establish Albanian rule over Kosovo.
The arising Principality of Serbia planned a restoration of its rule on Kosovo as Ottoman might crumbled on the Balkan peninsular. The period witnessed a rise of Serbian nationalism. Serbia's plans for a post-Ottoman period included the return of Kosovo.
During the First Balkan War, the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Montenegro fought alongside the Kingdoms of Greece and Bulgaria as part of the Balkan League to drive the Ottoman forces out of Europe and to incorporate the spoils into their respective states. Serbia, Montenegro and Greece had occupied the entire Western Balkan (Albanian-inhabited territories) with the exception of Vlora in the hope of achieving recognition with their new borders. Resistance from the Albanians across their entire region in favour of their own proposed independent nation state led to fighting between the Balkan League armies (less geographically uninvolved Bulgaria) and Albanian forces. To end the conflict, the Treaty of London decreed an independent Principality of Albania (akin to its present borders), with most of the Vilayet of Kosovo awarded to Serbia and the Metohija region awarded to Montenegro.
During the First World War, in the winter of 1915-1916, the Serbian army withdrew through Kosovo in a bid to evade the forces of the Central Powers. Thousands died of starvation and exposure. In 1918, the Serbian army pushed the Central Powers out of Kosovo, and the region was unified as Montenegro subsequently joined the Kingdom of Serbia. The monarchy was then transformed into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The 1918-1929 period of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes witnessed a decrease in the Serbian population of the region and an increase in the number of Albanians. In 1929, the state was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The territories of Kosovo were split among the Zeta Banovina, the Banate of Morava and the Banate of Vardar. The state lasted until the World War II invasion and Axis occupation of Yugoslavia (1941).
After the invasion of Yugoslavia (6-18 April 1941), the Axis powers divided territory among themselves. Kosovo and Metohija was divided between Italian, German and Bulgarian occupation. The largest part of what is today Kosovo was under Italian occupation and was annexed into a "Greater Albania", the Albanian Kingdom through a decree on 12 August 1941, while northern parts were included in German-occupied Serbia, and southeastern parts into the Bulgarian occupational zone. Parts of eastern Montenegro and western Macedonia were also annexed to Albania.
During the occupation, the population was subject to expulsion, internment, forced labour, torture, destruction of private property, confiscation of land and livestock, destruction and damaging of monasteries, churches, cultural-historical monuments and graveyards. There were waves of violence against Serbs in some periods, such as April 1941, June 1942, September 1943, and continuous pressure in various ways. Civilians were sent to camps and prisons established by the Italian, German and Bulgarian occupation, and the Albanian community. The expulsion of Serbs proved problematic, as they had performed important functions in the region, and been running most of the businesses, mills, tanneries, and public utilities, and been responsible for most of the useful agricultural production. Most of the war crimes were perpetrated by the Vulnetari ("volunteers"),Balli Kombëtar and the SS Skanderbeg Division. The Skanderbeg Division was better known for murdering, raping, and looting in predominantly Serbian areas than for participating in combat operations on behalf of the German war effort. The most harsh position of Serbs was in the Italian (Albanian) zone. A large part of the Serb population was expelled or forced to flee in order to survive. Serbian estimations put the number of expelled at around 100,000; an estimated 40,000 from the Italian-occupation zone, 30,000 from the German zone, and 25,000 from the Bulgarian zone.
The Province of Kosovo was formed in 1946 as an autonomous region to protect its regional Albanian majority within the People's Republic of Serbia as a member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia under the leadership of the former Partisan leader, Josip Broz Tito, but with no factual autonomy. After Yugoslavia's name changed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbia's to the Socialist Republic of Serbia in 1953, the Autonomous Region of Kosovo gained some autonomy in the 1960s. In the 1974 constitution, the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo's government received higher powers, including the highest governmental titles - President and Premier and a seat in the Federal Presidency which made it a de facto Socialist Republic within the Federation, but remaining as a Socialist Autonomous Region within the Socialist Republic of Serbia. Serbian (called Serbo-Croatian at the time) and Albanian were defined official on the Provincial level marking the two largest linguistic Kosovan groups: Serbs and Albanians. In the 1970s, an Albanian nationalist movement pursued full recognition of the Province of Kosovo as another Republic within the federation, while the most extreme elements aimed for full-scale independence. Tito's government dealt with the situation swiftly, but only gave it a temporary solution. The ethnic balance of Kosovo witnessed unproportional increase as the number of Albanians rose dramatically due to higher birth rates.Serbs barely increased and dropped in the full share of the total population down to 10% due to higher demographic raise of the Albanian population.
In 1981, Albanian students organized protests seeking that Kosovo become a Republic within Yugoslavia. Those protests were harshly contained by the centralist Yugoslav government. In 1986, the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SANU) was working on a document, which later would be known as the SANU Memorandum. An unfinished edition was filtered to the press. In the essay, SANU explained the Serbian peoples history as victims of a 500-year and more genocide from Kosovo, and therefore called for the revival of Serb nationalism. During this time, Slobodan Milo?evi?'s rise to power started in the League of the Socialists of Serbia. Milo?evi? used the discontent reflected in the SANU memorandum for his political goals.
One of the events that contributed to Milo?evi?'s rise of power was the Gazimestan Speech, delivered in front of 1,000,000 Serbs at the central celebration marking the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo, held at Gazimestan on 28 June 1989.
Soon afterwards, as approved by the Assembly in 1990, the autonomy of Kosovo was revoked back to the old status (1971). The proclamation of an autonomous Kosovo by Tito and his communists was in fact a part of Tito's hope to continue the communist Yugoslavia. He had said "Strong Serbia, Weak Yugoslavia - Weak Serbia, Strong Yugoslavia" Milo?evi?, however, did not remove Kosovo's seat from the Federal Presidency. After Slovenia's secession from Yugoslavia in 1991, Milo?evi? used the seat to attain dominance over the Federal government, outvoting his opponents.
After the Dayton Agreement of 1995, the Kosovo Liberation Army, ethnic-Albanian paramilitary organisation that sought the separation of Kosovo and the eventual creation of a Greater Albania, began attacking Serbian civilians and Yugoslav army and police, bombing police stations and government buildings, killing Yugoslav police and innocent people of all nationalities, even Albanians who were not on their side. This triggered a Yugoslav interior ministry counter strike, aiming at crippling KLA-members, but since this was a guerilla organization it was hard to establish civilians from insurgents, and Albanian Americans started a lobby in the United States congress. The numbers that US, UK, NATO and UN officials operated with were around 10,000 Kosovo Albanians killed. This triggered a 78-day NATO campaign in 1999. As of 2014 , mass graves of Kosovar Albanian victims are still being found. There have been many reports of abuses and war crimes committed by the KLA during and after the conflict, such as massacres of civilians (Lake Radonji? massacre, Gnjilane, Staro Gracko, Kle?ka etc.), prison camps (Lapu?nik), organ theft and destruction of medieval churches and monuments.
The leaders of the new state of 'Kosovo' have been implicated in the Albanian war crimes.
According to the 1991 Yugoslavia census, there were 194,190 Serbs in Kosovo however with the arrival of NATO, a large number of Serbs fled or were expelled and many of the remaining civilians were subjected to abuse. During the unrest in Kosovo, 35 churches and monasteries were destroyed or seriously damaged. After Kosovo and other Yugoslav Wars, Serbia became home to highest number of refugees and IDPs (including Kosovo Serbs) in Europe.
In total, 156 Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries have been destroyed since June 1999, after the end of the Kosovo War and including the 2004 pogrom. Many of the churches and monasteries dated back to the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. KLA fighters are accused of vandalizing Devi? monastery and terrorizing the staff. The KFOR troops said KLA rebels vandalized centuries-old murals and paintings in the chapel and stole two cars and all the monastery's food.
The interim Kosovo government unilaterally declared independence from Serbia on Sunday, 17 February 2008. Serbia refuses to recognise this declaration of independence. Kosovo's self-proclaimed independence has been recognised by 113 UN countries, and one non-UN country, the Republic of China (Taiwan). The remaining Serbs from North Kosovo want to remain in the Republic of Serbia, but Serbian majority towns are now rare in the Albanian-dominated, partially recognised Republic of Kosovo.
Some officials[who?] in the Serbian government have proposed the partitioning of Kosovo, with North Kosovo and ?trpce becoming part of Serbia or given autonomy. The United States opposes the partition of Kosovo, stressing that the "great majority of countries around the world are not going to stand for that." In response to the seizure of railways in Northern Kosovo and formation of Serbian offices to serve as part of a parallel government, Kosovo's Prime Minister stated that they would "not tolerate any parallel institution on Kosovo's territory" and would assert their authority over all of Kosovo. The UN's Special Representative in Kosovo said the "international community has made it very clear that no partition of Kosovo will be acceptable."Ivan Eland, a Senior Fellow at the Independent Institute, suggested such "a partition within a partition" would prevent a "Serbia-Kosovo War" and provides the "best chance" of Kosovo having a long-term stable relationship with Serbia. Chairman of the Serb Municipalities of Kosovo Alliance Marko Jak?i? dismissed the talk of partition and said the action of Serbs in Kosovo is to protest the Kosovo declaration. Oliver Ivanovi?, a Kosovo Serb political leader, said he was against Kosovo's partition because "most Serbs live south of the Ibar and their position would become unsustainable". A Reuters analysis suggested that Kosovo may be divided along ethnic lines similar to Bosnia-Herzegovina. James Lyon of the International Crisis Group thinktank was quoted as saying, "the Republika Srpska style is acceptable for Serbia, but within the confines that it (Kosovo) is still part of Serbia."Pieter Feith, the European Union's special representative in Kosovo, and the International Civilian Representative for Kosovo said no plans are under discussion to carve out a canton or grant any other autonomy to Serbs living in the north of Kosovo. He told the Pristina, Kosovo, daily Koha Ditore, "It is quite clear that the privileged relations between the Serbs here (in Kosovo) and Belgrade are in the spheres of education, health care, and religious objects," adding that "the government in Pristina has to be respected."
On 30 September 2008, Serbian President Boris Tadi? stated that he would consider partitioning Kosovo if all other options were exhausted. The former Foreign Minister for Serbia and Montenegro, Goran Svilanovi?, applauded the suggestion saying "finally this is a realistic approach coming from Serbia. Finally, after several years, there is a room to discuss." After his comments aroused controversy in the media, Tadi? reiterated that he was suggesting this as a possibility only if all other options were exhausted. Kosovo's parliamentary speaker, Jakup Krasniqi, condemned any suggestion of partitioning saying, "All of those who aim to divide Kosovo, I want to say, it will end in nothing. Serbs lost their right to Kosovo with the unjust war against the Albanian majority."
Since the Brussels Agreement of 2013, where Serbia agreed to grant the government in Pristina authority over Kosovo and Metohija, Serbs have accepted many aspects of Pristina government's rule. They now vote on republic of Kosovo central election Commission ballots in local elections. Mayors like Goran Rakic of North Mitrovica and Kosovo assembly members loyalty oaths to the Republic of Kosovo. Krstmir Pantic of North mitrovica could not become mayor because he refused to sign the oath to the republic of Kosovo after he was chosen in the elections of 2013. Kosovo Serb policeman must take an oath when they join the Kosovo police to the Republic of Kosovo. Kosovo Serbs who serve in the legal system must take the Republic of Kosovo bar exam to practice law.
|1455||1 %||96 %||3 %|
|1871||32 %||64 %||4 %|
|1899||48 %||44 %||8 %|
|1921||69 %||26 %||15 %|
|1931||60 %||27 %||13 %|
|1948||68 %||24 %||8 %|
|1953||65 %||23 %||11 %|
|1961||67 %||23 %||9 %|
|1971||73 %||18 %||8 %|
|1981||77 %||13 %||9 %|
|1991||82 %||10 %||8 %|
|2000||88 %||7 %||5 %|
|2007||92 %||5 %||3 %|
During the 20th century, the Serb population of Kosovo constantly decreased. After the Middle Ages, the Serbs continued to be the absolute majority of the population of present-day Kosovo; through the 15th, 16th, and late 17th century, evident from Latin and Venetian travellers, such as Jacob Soranzo (1575), bishop Marin Bizzi (1610), ethnic Albanian bishop Petar Mazarek (1623), and bishop Giorgio Bianchi (1638). Today, Serbs mostly populate the enclaves across Kosovo, as well as compact North Kosovo where they comprise 95% of population and whose 1,200 km2 (463 sq mi) comprise 11% of Kosovo's territory. Diplomats from the United Nations have voiced concern over slow progress on Serb rights.Human Rights Watch pointed out discrimination against Serbs and Roma in Kosovo immediately after the War in Kosovo.
ECMI calculated, based on 2010 and 2013 estimations, that ca. 146,128 Serbs resided in Kosovo, that is, ca. 7.8% of the total population. In 2012, the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia estimated that the number was 90-120,000. The Republic of Kosovo-organized 2011 census did not take place in North Kosovo, and was boycotted by a considerable number of Serbs in southern Kosovo. The ECMI did call "for caution when referring to the 2011 Census in Kosovo". There are ten municipalities constituted by a Serb numerical majority. These are the four northern municipalities of North Mitrovica, Leposavi?, Zve?an, Zubin Potok, and the six southern (enclave) municipalities of Gra?anica, ?trpce, Novo Brdo, Ranilug, Parte? and Klokot.
Some 205,835 Kosovo Serbs were displaced in Serbia in 2009. As of 2015, there are at least 6,600 Kosovo Serb refugees in Montenegro. In 2003, the number was c. 12,000. The numbers do not include those that have received Montenegrin citizenship.
|North Mitrovica||76.48%||22,530||North Kosovo|
|Zubin Potok||93.29%||13,900||North Kosovo|
The term Arnauti or Arnauta?i was coined by ethnographers for "Albanised Serbs"; Serbs who had converted to Islam and went through a process of Albanisation. It is claimed that more than 10,000 ethnic Serbs have had their names Albanised, e.g. from Nikoli? to Nikoliqi, Petrovi? to Petroviqi, and their nationality changed from "Serbian" to "Kosovan". This has been interpreted by some as a form of ethnic cleansing.
The Battle of Kosovo is particularly important to Serbian history, tradition, and national identity.
Eparchy of Ra?ka and Prizren of Serbian orthodox church take care of Serbian people and Orthodox heritage in Kosovo Metohija. Numerous Serbian Orthodox monasteries and churches are spread around Kosovo and Methoja. Some of them include: Banjska monastery, Devi? monastery, Gra?anica monastery, Patriarchal Monastery of Pe?, Visoki De?ani monastery.
Medieval fortifications built by Serbian rules and lords present important cultural heritage.
In connection with social gatherings among the Serbs around the churches and monasteries called Sabori during the Slava and Hram (Patron of the monastery) there was a belief that everyone must dance (to instrumental accompaniments) in order to gain and secure good health. In upper Prizren the Sabor was held on 21 November by the ruins of the monastery of the Holy archangel founded by the Serbian Emperor Stefan Du?an the Mighty in the 14th century. There was also great social gatherings at the Kaljaja fortress.
The Serbs in Kosovo speak the dialects of Zeta-South Ra?ka, Kosovo-Resava, and Prizren-South Morava.
... ? 1610, ? ? 1623. ? ...
Prema ocenama...broj Srba na Kosovu je izme?u 90.000 i 120.000. [According to the estimates, the number of Serbs in Kosovo is between 90.000 to 120.000]
1 August 2009 UNHCR
Procene pokazuju da, 15 godina nakon zavr?etka sukoba, u Crnoj Gori ?ivi vi?e od 6,600 kosovskih Srba. Ve?ina njih jo? ?ivi u privremenim izbegli?kim naseljima i nemaju li?na dokumenta.
Crna Gora je pru?ila (ili pru?a) uto?i?te za 18.047 interno raseljenih osoba s Kosova od kojih je ve?ina izbjegla 1999., a manji broj njih 2000. (Izvje?taj o registracijiraseljenih lica..., 2003). Me?u interno raseljenima tre?ina su Romi, a najvi?e ih je smje?teno u romskim naseljima, gdje su izmije?ani s lokalnim sunarodnjacima ... Ukupan broj raseljenih u Crnoj Gori je pribli?no 26.500