List of Tallest Buildings and Structures in the World
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List of Tallest Buildings and Structures in the World

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The Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

The world's tallest artificial structure is the 829.8-metre-tall (2,722 ft) Burj Khalifa in Dubai (of the United Arab Emirates). The building gained the official title of "Tallest Building in the World" and the tallest self-supported structure at its opening on January 9, 2010. The second-tallest self-supporting structure and the tallest tower is the Tokyo Skytree. The tallest guyed structure is the KVLY-TV mast.

The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, an organization that certifies buildings as the "World's Tallest", recognizes a building only if at least 50% of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area.[1] Structures that do not meet this criterion, such as the CN Tower, are defined as "towers".

There are dozens of radio and television broadcasting towers which measure over 600 metres (about 2,000 ft) in height, and only the tallest are recorded in publicly available information sources.

Debate over definitions

The assessment of the height of artificial structures has been controversial. Various standards have been used by different organizations which has meant that the title of world's tallest structure or building has changed depending on which standards have been accepted. The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat has changed its definitions over time. Some of the controversy regarding the definitions and assessment of tall structures and buildings has included the following:

  • the definition of a structure, a building and a tower
  • whether a structure, building or tower under construction should be included in any assessment
  • whether a structure, building or tower has to be officially opened before it is assessed
  • whether structures built in and rising above water should have their below-water height included in any assessment.
  • whether a structure, building or tower that is guyed is assessed in the same category as self-supporting structures.

Within an accepted definition of a building further controversy has included the following factors:

  • whether only habitable height of the building is considered
  • whether communication towers with observation galleries should be considered "habitable" in this sense
  • whether rooftop antennas, viewing platforms or any other architecture that does not form a habitable floor should be included in the assessment
  • whether a floor built at a high level of a telecommunications or viewing tower should change the tower's definition to that of a "building"

Tallest structures

Warsaw radio mast, the height record holder from 1974 to 1991
The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, was the world's tallest freestanding structure from 1975 to 2007.

This category does not require the structure to be "officially" open but does require it to be "topped out".

The tallest artificial structure is Burj Khalifa, a skyscraper in Dubai that reached 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in height on January 17, 2009.[2] By April 7, 2008 it had been built higher than the KVLY-TV mast in North Dakota, USA.[3] That September it officially surpassed Poland's 646.38 m (2,120.7 ft) Warsaw radio mast, which stood from 1974 to 1991, to become the tallest structure ever built. Guyed lattice towers such as these masts had held the world height record since 1954.

The Petronius Platform stands 610 m (2,000 ft) off the sea floor leading some, including Guinness World Records 2007, to claim it as the tallest freestanding structure in the world. However, it is debated whether underwater height should be counted, in the same manner as height below ground is ignored on buildings. The Troll A platform is 472 m (1,549 ft), without any part of that height being supported by wires. The tension-leg type of oil platform has even greater below-water heights with several examples more than 1,000 m (3,300 ft) deep. However, these platforms are not considered constant structures as the vast majority of their height is made up of the length of the tendons attaching the floating platforms to the sea floor. Despite this, Guinness World Records 2009 listed the Ursa tension leg platform as the tallest structure in the world with a total height of 1,306 m (4,285 ft). The Magnolia Tension-leg Platform in the Gulf of Mexico is even taller with a total height of 1,432 m (4,698 ft).

Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, set records in three of the four skyscraper categories at the time it opened in 2004; at the time the Burj Khalifa opened in 2010 it remained the world's tallest inhabited building 509.2 m (1,671 ft) as measured to its architectural height (spire). The height of its roof 449.2 m (1,474 ft) and highest occupied floor 439.2 m (1,441 ft) had been surpassed by the Shanghai World Financial Center with corresponding heights of 487 and 474 m (1,598 and 1,555 ft). Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) was the highest in the final category: the greatest height to top of antenna of any building in the world at 527 m (1,729 ft).

Burj Khalifa broke the height record in all four categories for completed buildings.

Tallest structure by category

Due to the disagreements over how to measure height and classify structures, engineers have created various definitions for categories of buildings and other structures. One measure includes the absolute height of a building, another includes only spires and other permanent architectural features, but not antennas. The tradition of including the spire on top of a building and not including the antenna dates back to the rivalry between the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street. A modern-day example is that the antenna on top of Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) is not considered part of its architectural height, while the spires on top of the Petronas Twin Towers are counted.

Note: The following table is a list of the tallest completed structure in each of the structural categories below. For a list of structures by function see the list later in the article. There can only be one structure in each category, unless the tallest is the same for more than one structure in the same category.

Category Structure Country City Height (meters) Height (feet) Year built Coordinates
Building[4] Burj Khalifa  United Arab Emirates Dubai 829.8 2,722 2010 25°11?50.0?N 55°16?26.6?E / 25.197222°N 55.274056°E / 25.197222; 55.274056 (Burj Dubai)
Self-supporting tower[5] Tokyo Skytree  Japan Tokyo 634 2,080 2011 35°42?36.5?N 139°48?39?E / 35.710139°N 139.81083°E / 35.710139; 139.81083 (Tokyo Skytree)
Guyed steel lattice mast KVLY-TV mast  United States Blanchard, North Dakota 628.8 2,063 1963 47°20?32?N 97°17?25?W / 47.34222°N 97.29028°W / 47.34222; -97.29028 (KVLY-TV mast)
Mast radiator Lualualei VLF transmitter  United States Lualualei, Hawaii 458 1,503 1972 21°25?11.87?N 158°08?53.67?W / 21.4199639°N 158.1482417°W / 21.4199639; -158.1482417 (VLF transmitter Lualualei, Mast 1) ; 21°25?13.38?N 158°09?14.35?W / 21.4203833°N 158.1539861°W / 21.4203833; -158.1539861 (VLF transmitter Lualualei, Mast 2)
Twin building Petronas Twin Towers  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 452 1,482 1998 3°09?27.45?N 101°42?40.7?E / 3.1576250°N 101.711306°E / 3.1576250; 101.711306 (Petronas Tower 1); 3°09?29.45?N 101°42?43.4?E / 3.1581806°N 101.712056°E / 3.1581806; 101.712056 (Petronas Tower 2)
Chimney Ekibastuz GRES-2 Power Station  Kazakhstan Ekibastuz 419.7 1,377 1987 52°1?26.3?N 75°28?34.5?E / 52.023972°N 75.476250°E / 52.023972; 75.476250 (GRES-2 Power Station)
Radar Dimona Radar Facility  Israel Dimona 400 1,312 2008 30°58?6.93?N 35°05?49.64?E / 30.9685917°N 35.0971222°E / 30.9685917; 35.0971222 (Dimona Radar Facility) ; 30°58?32.46?N 35°05?55.25?E / 30.9756833°N 35.0986806°E / 30.9756833; 35.0986806 (Dimona Radar Facility)
Lattice tower Kiev TV Tower  Ukraine Kiev 385 1,263 1973 50°28?16.49?N 30°27?11.97?E / 50.4712472°N 30.4533250°E / 50.4712472; 30.4533250 (Kiev TV Tower)
Electricity pylon Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie  China Zhoushan 370 1,214 2009 29°56?2.78?N 122°2?10.12?E / 29.9341056°N 122.0361444°E / 29.9341056; 122.0361444 (Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie, 370 metres tower) ; 29°54?41.39?N 122°1?26.38?E / 29.9114972°N 122.0239944°E / 29.9114972; 122.0239944 (Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie, 370 metres tower)
Partially guyed tower Gerbrandy Tower  Netherlands IJsselstein 366.8 1,203 1961 52°00?36.24?N 05°03?12.87?E / 52.0100667°N 5.0535750°E / 52.0100667; 5.0535750 (Gerbrandy Tower)
Guyed tubular steel mast TV Tower Vinnytsia  Ukraine Vinnytsia 354 1,161 1961 49°14?30.04?N 28°25?25.25?E / 49.2416778°N 28.4236806°E / 49.2416778; 28.4236806 (TV Tower Vinnytsia)
Bridge Millau Viaduct  France Millau 342 1,122 2004 44°05?09.97?N 03°01?17.94?E / 44.0861028°N 3.0216500°E / 44.0861028; 3.0216500 (Viaduc de Millau)
Blaw-Knox Tower (diamond cantilever tower) Lakihegy Tower  Hungary Szigetszentmiklós 314 1,031 1968 47°22?23?N 19°00?16?E / 47.37306°N 19.00444°E / 47.37306; 19.00444 (Lakihegy Tower)
Dam Jinping-I Dam  China Liangshan 305 1,001 2013 28°11?07?N 101°37?42?E / 28.18528°N 101.62833°E / 28.18528; 101.62833 (Jinping-I Dam)
Wind turbine GE 3.4-137 wind turbine at Naturstromspeicher Gaildorf[6]  Germany Gaildorf 246.5 809 2017 48°59?49?N 9°48?35?E / 48.997075°N 9.809822°E / 48.997075; 9.809822 (GE 3.4-137 Wind Turbine)
Statue (incl. base) Statue of Unity  India Narmada district, Gujarat 240 790 2018 21°50?17?N 73°43?09?E / 21.8380°N 73.7191°E / 21.8380; 73.7191 (Statue of Unity)
Minaret Hassan II Mosque  Morocco Casablanca 210 689 1993 33°36?28.71?N 7°37?58.16?W / 33.6079750°N 7.6328222°W / 33.6079750; -7.6328222 (Hassan II Mosque)
Cooling tower Kalisindh Thermal Power Station  India Jhalawar 202[7] 663 2012 24°32?04.97?N 76°05?57.89?E / 24.5347139°N 76.0994139°E / 24.5347139; 76.0994139 (Kalisindh Power Station cooling tower) ; 24°31?58.33?N 76°06?06.81?E / 24.5328694°N 76.1018917°E / 24.5328694; 76.1018917 (Kalisindh Power Station cooling tower)
Monument Gateway Arch  United States St. Louis, Missouri 192 630 1965 38°37?28.62?N 90°11?5.87?W / 38.6246167°N 90.1849639°W / 38.6246167; -90.1849639 (Gateway Arch)
Water tower Main tower of Kuwait Towers  Kuwait Kuwait City 187 614 1979 29°23?22.75?N 48°00?11.57?E / 29.3896528°N 48.0032139°E / 29.3896528; 48.0032139 (Kuwait Towers)
Wooden structure ATLAS-I at Kirtland Air Force Base  United States Albuquerque 180 600 1980 35°01?48?N 106°33?27?W / 35.029898°N 106.557574°W / 35.029898; -106.557574 (ATLAS-I)
Masonry tower Anaconda Smelter Stack  United States Anaconda, Montana 178.3 585 1919 46°06?36.53?N 112°54?48.8?W / 46.1101472°N 112.913556°W / 46.1101472; -112.913556 (Anaconda Smelter Stack)
Inclined structure Olympic Stadium  Canada Montreal 175 574 1976 45°33?33.53?N 73°33?7.61?W / 45.5593139°N 73.5521139°W / 45.5593139; -73.5521139 (Montreal Olympic Stadium)
Obelisk San Jacinto Monument  United States La Porte, Texas 173.7 570 1939 29°44?59.46?N 95°04?50.52?W / 29.7498500°N 95.0807000°W / 29.7498500; -95.0807000 (San Jacinto Monument)
Ferris wheel High Roller  United States Las Vegas 167.6 550 2014 36°07?03?N 115°10?05?W / 36.117402°N 115.168127°W / 36.117402; -115.168127 (High Roller)
Masonry building Mole Antonelliana  Italy Torino 167 548 1889 45°04?8.45?N 7°41?35.62?E / 45.0690139°N 7.6932278°E / 45.0690139; 7.6932278 (Mole Antonelliana)
Masonry building Philadelphia City Hall  United States Philadelphia 167 548 1901 39°57?9.79?N 75°09?48.72?W / 39.9527194°N 75.1635333°W / 39.9527194; -75.1635333 (Philadelphia City Hall)
Flagpole Jeddah Flagpole  Saudi Arabia Jeddah 171[8] 561 2014 21°30?28.23?N 39°10?11.04?E / 21.5078417°N 39.1697333°E / 21.5078417; 39.1697333 (Jeddah Flagpole)
Church tower Ulmer Münster  Germany Ulm 162 530 1890 48°23?55?N 9°59?30.78?E / 48.39861°N 9.9918833°E / 48.39861; 9.9918833 (Ulmer Münster)
Industrial hall Vehicle Assembly Building  United States Kennedy Space Center, Florida 160 525 1966 28°35?9.64?N 80°39?2.11?W / 28.5860111°N 80.6505861°W / 28.5860111; -80.6505861 (Vehicle Assembly Building)
Dome Dome of the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro  Ivory Coast Yamoussoukro 158 518 1990 6°48?40?N 5°17?47?W / 6.81111°N 5.29639°W / 6.81111; -5.29639 (Dome of Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro)
Memorial cross Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos  Spain El Escorial 152.4 500 1957 40°38?31.46?N 4°9?19.6?W / 40.6420722°N 4.155444°W / 40.6420722; -4.155444 (Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos)
Telescope Arecibo Telescope  Puerto Rico Arecibo, Puerto Rico 150 492 1963 18°20?39?N 66°45?10?W / 18.34417°N 66.75278°W / 18.34417; -66.75278 (Arecibo Telescope)
Roller coaster Kingda Ka  United States Jackson, New Jersey 138.98 456 2005 40°08?26.54?N 74°25?59.83?W / 40.1407056°N 74.4332861°W / 40.1407056; -74.4332861 (Kingda Ka)
Tomb Great Pyramid of Giza  Egypt Giza 138.8 455.2 2560 BCE 29°58?44.93?N 31°08?3.09?E / 29.9791472°N 31.1341917°E / 29.9791472; 31.1341917 (Great Pyramid of Giza)
Air traffic control tower Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 Control Tower  Malaysia Sepang 141.3 463.6 2013[9]

2°44?26?N 101°40?45?E / 2.740486°N 101.679069°E / 2.740486; 101.679069 (Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 Control Tower)

Stupa Jetavanaramaya  Sri Lanka Anuradhapura 122 400
Wooden lattice tower Gliwice Radio Tower  Poland Gliwice 118 387 1935 50°18?48.12?N 18°41?20.26?E / 50.3133667°N 18.6889611°E / 50.3133667; 18.6889611 (Gliwice Radio Tower)
Storage silo Schapfen Mill Tower  Germany Ulm 115 377 2005 48°25?57?N 9°58?58?E / 48.43250°N 9.98278°E / 48.43250; 9.98278 (Schapfen Mill Tower)
Aerial tramway support tower Pillar of third section of Gletscherbahn Kaprun  Austria Kaprun 113.6 373 1966 47°11?58.62?N 12°41?16.96?E / 47.1996167°N 12.6880444°E / 47.1996167; 12.6880444 (Glacial Aerial Tramway Kaprun III Support Pillar)
Sphere Ericsson Globe  Sweden Stockholm 85 279 1989 59°17?36.92?N 18°04?58.79?E / 59.2935889°N 18.0829972°E / 59.2935889; 18.0829972 (Ericsson Globe)
Lighthouse Île Vierge Lighthouse  France Finistère 82.5 271 1902
Gopuram Murudeshwara Temple  India Murudeshwara 76 249 2008 14°05?39?N 74°29?07?E / 14.094197°N 74.485163°E / 14.094197; 74.485163 (Murudeshwara Temple)

Tallest destroyed structures by category, not surpassed by existing structures

There are some destroyed architectural structures which were taller than the tallest existing structure of their type. There are also destroyed structures omitted from this list that had been surpassed in height prior to being destroyed.

Category Structure Country City Height (metres) Height (feet) Coordinates Remarks
Guyed mast Warsaw Radio Mast  Poland G?bin 646.38 2,121 52°22?3.74?N 19°48?8.73?E / 52.3677056°N 19.8024250°E / 52.3677056; 19.8024250 (Konstantynow Radio Mast (destroyed)) Completed in 1974, collapsed on August 8, 1991
Scientific research tower BREN Tower  United States Nevada Test Site 462 1,516 36°46?50.23?N 116°14?36.9?W / 36.7806194°N 116.243583°W / 36.7806194; -116.243583 (BREN-Tower) Completed in 1962, demolished May 23, 2012[10]
Guyed tubular steel mast Shushi-Wan Omega Transmitter  Japan Tsushima 389 1,276 34°36?53?N 129°27?13?E / 34.61472°N 129.45361°E / 34.61472; 129.45361 (Shushi-Wan Omega Transmitter (dismantled)) Completed in 1973, dismantled in 1998
Structure for scientific experiment Smokey Shot Tower  United States Nevada Test Site 213 700 37°11?13.63?N 116°4?7.93?W / 37.1871194°N 116.0688694°W / 37.1871194; -116.0688694 (Smokey Shot Tower(destroyed)) Guyed mast, which carried 44 kt yield nuclear bomb "Smokey" (part of operation Plumbbob) on top until its explosion on August 31, 1957
Wooden structure Mühlacker Wood Radio Tower  Germany Mühlacker 190 623 48°56?27.67?N 8°51?8.24?E / 48.9410194°N 8.8522889°E / 48.9410194; 8.8522889 (Mühlacker Wood Radio Tower (replaced by guyed mast)) Completed in 1934, destroyed on April 6, 1945, by the Germans to prevent usage by the Allies, replaced by mast radiator
Masonry building Mole Antonelliana  Italy Turin 167.5 549.5 45°04?8.45?N 7°41?35.62?E / 45.0690139°N 7.6932278°E / 45.0690139; 7.6932278 (Mole Antonelliana) Spire destroyed by a tornado in 1953 (rebuilt since then)
Pre-Industrial era building Lincoln Cathedral  United Kingdom Lincoln 160 524 53°14?3.26?N 0°32?10.54?W / 53.2342389°N 0.5362611°W / 53.2342389; -0.5362611 (Lincoln Cathedral) Completed in 1311, spire blown off in 1549
Gasometer Gasometer Zeche Nordstern  Germany Gelsenkirchen 147 482 Completed in 1938, damaged at an air raid on May 13, 1940 in such a manner, that it was not usable any more and had to be demolished.
Storage silo Henninger Turm  Germany Frankfurt 120 394 50°05?50.18?N 8°41?36.81?E / 50.0972722°N 8.6935583°E / 50.0972722; 8.6935583 (Henninger Turm) Constructed in 1961, demolished in 2013

Tallest building by function

Category Structure Country City Architectural top (metres) Architectural top (feet)
Mixed-use* Burj Khalifa  United Arab Emirates Dubai 830 2,722
Office One World Trade Center  United States New York City 541 1,776
Military structure Large masts of INS Kattabomman  India Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu 471 1,545
Residential 432 Park Avenue  United States New York City 425.5 1,396
Hotel JW Marriott Marquis Dubai  United Arab Emirates Dubai 355 1,166
Scientific research tower Amazon Tall Tower Observatory  Brazil 160 km NE of Manaus 325[11] 1,066
Educational Moscow State University  Russia Moscow 240 787
Religious Hassan II Mosque  Morocco Casablanca 210 689
Hospital Outpatient Center, Houston Methodist Hospital  United States Houston 156.05 511.8

* "Mixed-use" is defined as having three or more real estate uses (such as retail, office, hotel, etc.) that are physically and functionally integrated in a single property and are mutually supporting.[12]

Tallest buildings

Up until the late 1990s, the definition of "tallest building" was not altogether clear. It was generally understood to be the height of the building to the top of its architectural elements including spires, but not including "temporary" structures (such as antennas or flagpoles), which could be added or changed relatively easily without requiring major changes to the building's design. Other criteria for height measurement generally were not considered, which occasionally caused some controversy.

One historic case involved the building now famous for the Times Square Ball. Known as One Times Square (at 1475 Broadway in Midtown Manhattan), it was the headquarters for The New York Times, which gave Times Square its name. Completed in 1905, it reached a height of 364 feet (111 meters) to its roof, or 420 feet (130 meters) including its rooftop flagpole, which the Times vainly hoped would give it a record high status. But because a flagpole is not an integral architectural part of a building, One Times Square was not generally considered to be taller than the 390-foot-high (120 m) Park Row Building in Lower Manhattan, which was therefore still New York's tallest.[13]

A bigger controversy was the rivalry between two New York skyscrapers built in the Roaring Twenties -- the Chrysler Building and the Bank of Manhattan Trust Building, now called the Trump Building but better known as 40 Wall Street (thus avoiding confusion with the many other Trump-named buildings). The latter was 927 feet (283 meters) tall, had a shorter pinnacle, and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very long 125-foot (38 m) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 1,048 feet (319 m), despite having a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires are not counted in their heights. Although the architects of record for 40 Wall were H. Craig Severance and Yasuo Matsui, the firm of Shreve & Lamb (who also designed the Empire State Building) served as consulting architects. They wrote a newspaper article claiming that 40 Wall was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor. They pointed out that the observation deck of 40 Wall was nearly 100 feet (30 m) higher than the top floor of the Chrysler, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and essentially inaccessible.[14] Despite the protest, the Chrysler Building was generally accepted as the tallest building in the world for almost a year, until it was surpassed by the Empire State Building's 1,250 feet (380 meters) in 1931.

That was in turn surpassed by the 1,368-foot-high (417 m) twin towers of New York's original World Trade Center in 1972, which were in turn surpassed by the Sears Tower in Chicago in 1974. Now called the Willis Tower (since 2009) it was 1,451 feet (442 meters) to its flat rooftop, or 1,518 feet (463 meters) including its original antennas.[15] But in 1978 One World Trade Center (commonly known as the north tower) attained a taller absolute height when it added its 360-foot (110 m) new broadcasting antenna, for a total height of 1,728 feet (527 meters). The WTC north tower maintained this height record (including its antenna) from 1978 until 2000, when the owners of the Willis Tower extended its broadcasting antennae for a total height of 1,729 feet (527 meters).[15] Thus the status of the Willis Tower as the "totally" tallest was restored in the face of a new threat looming in the Far East -- the "Siamese Twins."

The Petronas Towers remain the tallest twin towers in the world.

A major controversy erupted upon completion of the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. These twin towers, at 1,483 feet (452 meters), had a higher architectural height (spires, not antennas), but a lower absolute pinnacle height and a lower top occupied floor than the Willis Tower in Chicago. Counting buildings as structures with floors throughout, and with antenna masts excluded, the Willis was still considered the tallest at that time. Excluding their spires, which are 9 meters (30 feet) higher than the flat roof of Willis, the Petronas Towers are not taller than Willis. At their convention in Chicago, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) found the Willis Tower (without its antennas) to be the third-tallest building, and the Petronas Towers (with their spires) to be the world's two tallest buildings.[13]

Responding to the ensuing controversy, the CTBUH then revised their criteria and defined four categories in which the world's tallest building can be measured,[16] retaining the old criterion of height to architectural top, and adding three new categories:[13]

  1. Height to Architectural Top (including spires and pinnacles, but not antennas, masts or flagpoles). This measurement is the most widely used and is used to define the rankings of the 100 Tallest Buildings in the World.
  2. Highest Occupied Floor
  3. Height to Top of Roof (omitted from criteria from November 2009 onwards)[17]
  4. Height to Tip

The height-to-roof criterion was discontinued because relatively few modern tall buildings possess flat rooftops, making this criterion difficult to determine and measure.[18] The CTBUH has further clarified their definitions of building height, including specific criteria concerning subbasements and ground level entrances (height measured from lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance rather than from a previously undefined "main entrance"), building completion (must be topped out both structurally and architecturally, fully clad, and able to be occupied), condition of the highest occupied floor (must be continuously used by people living or working and be conditioned, thus including observation decks, but not mechanical floors) and other aspects of tall buildings.[18][19]

The height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance. At the time, the Willis Tower held first place in the second and third categories, the Petronas Towers held the first category, and the original WTC north tower held the fourth (height to tip) category with its antenna.[13] In 2000, however, a new antenna mast was placed on the Willis Tower, giving it the record in the fourth category. On April 20, 2004, the 101-storey Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, was completed, taking the world record for the first three categories. On July 21, 2007, it was announced that Burj Khalifa in Dubai, UAE, had surpassed Taipei 101. Since its completion in early 2010, Burj Khalifa leads in all categories (the first building to do so) with its spire height of 2,722 feet (830 meters).

Before Burj Khalifa was completed, Willis Tower led in the height-to-tip category with 1,729 feet (527 meters) after its antenna was extended in 2000, making Willis Tower slightly taller height-to-tip than the WTC north tower's antenna that measured 1,728 feet (527 meters). After the September 11, 2001, attacks, the WTC became the world's tallest two buildings to be destroyed or demolished. They took that distinction from the Singer Building, which stood 612 feet (187 meters) tall until the late 1960s where One Liberty Plaza now stands right across Church Street from the WTC site.

A different superlative for skyscrapers is their number of floors. The original World Trade Center set that record at 110 in the early 1970s, and this was not surpassed until the Burj Khalifa opened in 2010.

Structures such as the CN Tower, the Ostankino Tower and the Oriental Pearl Tower are excluded from these categories because they are not "habitable buildings", which are defined as frame structures made with floors and walls throughout.[1]

History of record holders in each CTBUH category

Date (event) Architectural top Highest occupied floor Roof Tip
2010: Burj Khalifa completed Burj Khalifa Burj Khalifa Burj Khalifa
2009: CTBUH omits Height to Roof category Taipei 101 Shanghai World Financial Center Willis Tower
2008: Shanghai World Financial Center completed Taipei 101 Shanghai I World Financial Center Shanghai World Financial Center Willis Tower
2003: Taipei 101 completed Taipei 101 Taipei 101 Taipei 101 Willis Tower
2000: Willis Tower antenna extension Petronas Towers Willis Tower Willis Tower Willis Tower
1998: Petronas Towers completed Petronas Towers Willis Tower Willis Tower World Trade Center
1996: CTBUH defines categories Willis Tower Willis Tower Willis Tower World Trade Center

Tallest freestanding structures on land

Freestanding structures must not be supported by guy wires, the sea or other types of support. It therefore does not include guyed masts, partially guyed towers and drilling platforms but does include towers, skyscrapers (pinnacle height) and chimneys. (See also history of tallest skyscrapers.)

The world's tallest freestanding structure on land is defined as the tallest self-supporting artificial structure that stands above ground. This definition is different from that of world's tallest building or world's tallest structure based on the percentage of the structure that is occupied and whether or not it is self-supporting or supported by exterior cables. Likewise, this definition does not count structures that are built underground or on the seabed, such as the Petronius Platform in the Gulf of Mexico. Visit world's tallest structure by category for a list of various other definitions.

The tallest freestanding structure on land is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building surpassed the height of the previous record holder, the 553.3 m (1,815 ft) CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, on September 12, 2007. It was completed in 2010, with final height of 829.8 m (2,722 ft).

History

The following is a list of structures that have held the title as the tallest freestanding structure on land.

Tallest historical structures
Record from Record held (years) Name and location Constructed Height (metres) Height (feet) Coordinates Notes
c. 8000 BC 5350 Tower of Jericho, West Bank c. 8000 BC 8.5 28 31°52?19?N 35°26?38?E / 31.872041°N 35.443981°E / 31.872041; 35.443981
c. 2650 BC 40 Pyramid of Djoser, Egypt c. 2650 BC 62 203 29°52?16.53?N 31°12?59.59?E / 29.8712583°N 31.2165528°E / 29.8712583; 31.2165528 (Pyramid of Djoser)  
c. 2610 BC 5 Meidum Pyramid in Egypt c. 2610 BC 93.5 307 29°23?17?N 31°09?25?E / 29.38806°N 31.15694°E / 29.38806; 31.15694 (Meidum Pyramid) Shortly after completion Meidum Pyramid collapsed due to bad design/instability and is now 65 m (213 ft).
c. 2605 BC 5 Bent Pyramid in Egypt c. 2605 BC 101.1 332 29°47?25?N 31°12?33?E / 29.79028°N 31.20917°E / 29.79028; 31.20917 (Bent Pyramid) Angle of slope decreased during construction to avoid collapse.
c. 2600 BC 40 Red Pyramid of Sneferu, Egypt c. 2600 BC 105 345 29°48?31.39?N 31°12?22.49?E / 29.8087194°N 31.2062472°E / 29.8087194; 31.2062472 (Red Pyramid)  
c. 2560 BC 3871 Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt c. 2560 BC 146 481 29°58?44.93?N 31°08?3.09?E / 29.9791472°N 31.1341917°E / 29.9791472; 31.1341917 (Great Pyramid of Giza) By 1647, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (456 ft).
 1311 238 Lincoln Cathedral in England 1092-1311 160 525 53°14?3.26?N 0°32?10.54?W / 53.2342389°N 0.5362611°W / 53.2342389; -0.5362611 (Lincoln Cathedral) The central spire was destroyed in a storm in 1549. While the reputed height of 525 ft (160 m) is accepted by most sources,[20][21][22][23][24][25] others consider it doubtful[26]
1549 20 St. Mary's Church in Stralsund, Germany 1384-1478 151 495 54°18?36.01?N 13°5?14.81?E / 54.3100028°N 13.0874472°E / 54.3100028; 13.0874472 (St. Mary's church, Stralsund)
1569 4 Beauvais Cathedral in France 1225 - 1604 153 502 49°25?49?N 2°05?43?E / 49.43028°N 2.09528°E / 49.43028; 2.09528 (Beauvais Cathedral) Spire collapsed in 1573 (the cross was removed in 1572); today, the church stands at a height of 67.2 m (220.5 ft).
1573 94 (20+74) St. Mary's Church in Stralsund, Germany 1384-1478 151 495 54°18?36.01?N 13°5?14.81?E / 54.3100028°N 13.0874472°E / 54.3100028; 13.0874472 (St. Mary's church, Stralsund) The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1647. The current spire's height is 104 m (341 ft).
1647 227 Strasbourg Cathedral in France 1439 142 469 48°34?54.22?N 7°45?1.48?E / 48.5817278°N 7.7504111°E / 48.5817278; 7.7504111 (Strasbourg Cathedral) By 1647, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (456 ft) hence Strasbourg Cathedral was higher.
1874 2 St. Nikolai in Hamburg, Germany 1846-1874 147 483 53°32?50.94?N 9°59?26.12?E / 53.5474833°N 9.9905889°E / 53.5474833; 9.9905889 (St. Nikolai, Hamburg)
1876 4 Cathédrale Notre Dame in Rouen, France 1202-1876 151 495 49°26?24.54?N 1°5?41.85?E / 49.4401500°N 1.0949583°E / 49.4401500; 1.0949583 (Rouen Cathedral)  
1880 4 Cologne Cathedral in Germany 1248-1880 157 515 50°56?28.08?N 6°57?25.73?E / 50.9411333°N 6.9571472°E / 50.9411333; 6.9571472 (Cologne Cathedral, Tower South) ;50°56?29.11?N 6°57?25.85?E / 50.9414194°N 6.9571806°E / 50.9414194; 6.9571806 (Cologne Cathedral, Tower North)
1884 5 Washington Monument in Washington D.C., United States 1884 169 555 38°53?22.08?N 77°2?6.89?W / 38.8894667°N 77.0352472°W / 38.8894667; -77.0352472 (Washington Monument) The world's tallest all-stone structure, as well as the tallest obelisk-form structure.
1889 41 Eiffel Tower in Paris, France 1887-1889 300 986 48°51?29.77?N 2°17?40.09?E / 48.8582694°N 2.2944694°E / 48.8582694; 2.2944694 (Eiffel Tower) First structure to exceed 300 metres in height. The addition of a telecommunications tower in the 1950s brought the overall height to 324 m (1,063 ft).
1930 1 Chrysler Building in New York, United States 1928-1930 319 1,046 40°45?5.78?N 73°58?31.52?W / 40.7516056°N 73.9754222°W / 40.7516056; -73.9754222 (Chrysler Building)
1931 36 Empire State Building in New York, United States 1930-1931 381 1,250 40°44?54.95?N 73°59?8.71?W / 40.7485972°N 73.9857528°W / 40.7485972; -73.9857528 (Empire State Building) First building with 100+ stories. The addition of a pinnacle and antennas later increased its overall height to 448.7 m (1,472 ft). This was subsequently lowered to 443.1 m (1,454 ft).
1967 8 Ostankino Tower in Moscow, Soviet Union 1963-1967 540 1,762 55°49?10.94?N 37°36?41.79?E / 55.8197056°N 37.6116083°E / 55.8197056; 37.6116083 (Ostankino Tower) Remains the tallest in Europe. Fire in 2000 led to extensive renovation.
1975 32 CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1973-1976 553 1,815 43°38?33.22?N 79°23?13.41?W / 43.6425611°N 79.3870583°W / 43.6425611; -79.3870583 (CN Tower) Remains the tallest in the Western Hemisphere
2007 present Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2004-2009 829.8 2,722 25°11?50.0?N 55°16?26.6?E / 25.197222°N 55.274056°E / 25.197222; 55.274056 (Burj Dubai) Holder of world's tallest freestanding structure. Topped out at 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in 2009.
Diagram of the principal high buildings of the Old World, 1884

Notable mentions include the Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, built in the third century BC and estimated between 115-135 m (377-443 ft). It was the world's tallest non-pyramidal structure for many centuries. Another notable mention includes the Jetavanaramaya stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, which was built in the third century, and was similarly tall at 122 m (400 ft). These were both the world's tallest or second-tallest non-pyramidal structure for over a thousand years.

The tallest secular building between the collapse of the Pharos and the erection of the Washington Monument may have been the Torre del Mangia in Siena, which is 102 m (335 ft) tall, and was constructed in the first half of the fourteenth century, and the 97-metre-tall (318 ft) Torre degli Asinelli in Bologna, also Italy, built between 1109 and 1119.

World's highest observation deck

Timeline of development of world's highest observation deck since inauguration of Eiffel Tower.

Record from Record held (years) Name and location Constructed Height above ground Notes
m ft
1889 42 Eiffel Tower, Paris 1889 275 902 Two lower observation decks at 57 and 115 m (187 and 377 ft).
1931 42 Empire State Building, New York City 1931 369[27] 1,250 On the 102nd floor - a second observation deck is located on the 86th floor at 320 m (1,050 ft).
1973 1 World Trade Center, New York City 1973 399.4 1,310 Indoor observatory on the 107th floor of South Tower opened on April 4, 1973. Destroyed on September 11, 2001
1974 1 Willis Tower, Chicago 1974 412.4 1,353 103rd floor Skydeck opened on June 22, 1974
1975 1 World Trade Center, New York City 1973 419.7 1,377 Outdoor observatory on the South Tower rooftop opened on December 15, 1975. Destroyed on September 11, 2001
1976 32 CN Tower, Toronto 1976 446.5 1,464.9 Two further observation decks at 342 and 346 m (1,122 and 1,135 ft).
2008 3 Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai 2008 474 1,555 Two further observation decks at 423 and 439 m (1,388 and 1,440 ft).
2011 3 Canton Tower, Guangzhou 2011 488 1,601 The rooftop outdoor observation deck opened in December 2011. There are also several other indoor observation decks in the tower, the highest at 433.2 m (1,421 ft).
2014 2 Burj Khalifa, Dubai 2010 555 1,821 Opened on October 15, 2014 on the 148th floor. There is another observation deck at 452.1 m (1,483 ft) on the 124th floor, which has been open since the building was opened to the public.
2016 present Shanghai Tower, Shanghai, China and Ping An Finance Centre (since 2017) 2015 562 1,841 Opened on July 1, 2016.

Higher observation decks have existed on mountain tops or cliffs, rather than on tall structures. The Grand Canyon Skywalk, constructed in 2007, protrudes 21 m (70 ft) over the west rim of the Grand Canyon and is approximately 1,100 m (3,600 ft) above the Colorado River, making it the highest of these types of structures.[]

Timeline of guyed structures on land

As most of the tallest structures are guyed masts, here is a timeline of world's tallest guyed masts, since the beginning of radio technology.

As many large guyed masts were destroyed at the end of World War II, the dates for the years between 1945 and 1950 may be incorrect. If Wusung Radio Tower survived World War II, it was the tallest guyed structure shortly after World War II.

Record from Record held (years) Name and location Constructed Height Coordinates Notes
m ft
1913 7 Central mast of Eilvese transmitter, Eilvese, Germany 1913 250 820 52°31?40?N 9°24?24?E / 52.52778°N 9.40667°E / 52.52778; 9.40667 (Eilvese transmitter (demolished)) Mast was divided in 145 m by an insulator, demolished in 1931
1920 3 Central masts of Nauen Transmitter Station, Nauen, Germany 1920 260 853 52°38?56?N 12°54?30?E / 52.64889°N 12.90833°E / 52.64889; 12.90833 (Nauen transmitter) 2 masts, demolished in 1946
1923 10 Masts of Ruiselede transmitter, Ruiselede, Belgium 1923 287 942 51°4?44?N 3°20?6.9?E / 51.07889°N 3.335250°E / 51.07889; 3.335250 (Zendmast Ruiselede (destroyed) (location unclear))? 8 masts, destroyed in 1940
1933 6 Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary 1933 314 1,031 47°22?23.45?N 19°0?17.21?E / 47.3731806°N 19.0047806°E / 47.3731806; 19.0047806 (Lakihegy Radio Tower) Blaw-Knox Tower, insulated against ground, destroyed in 1945; rebuilt
1939 7 Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster, Herzberg (Elster), Germany 1939 335 1,099 51°42?59.76?N 13°15?51.5?E / 51.7166000°N 13.264306°E / 51.7166000; 13.264306 (Deutschlandsender III (dismantled)) Insulated against ground, dismantled 1946/1947
1946 2 Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary 1946 314 1,031 47°22?23.45?N 19°0?17.21?E / 47.3731806°N 19.0047806°E / 47.3731806; 19.0047806 (Lakihegy Radio Tower) Blaw-Knox Tower, Insulated against ground, rebuilt after destruction in 1945
1948 1 WIVB-TV Tower, Colden, New York, USA 1948 321.9 1,056 42°39?33.19?N 78°37?33.91?W / 42.6592194°N 78.6260861°W / 42.6592194; -78.6260861 (WIVB-TV Tower)
1949 1 Longwave transmitter Raszyn, Raszyn, Poland 1949 335 1,099 52°4?21.72?N 20°53?2.15?E / 52.0727000°N 20.8839306°E / 52.0727000; 20.8839306 (Raszyn Radio Mast) Insulated against ground
1950 4 Forestport Tower, Forestport, New York, USA 1950 371.25 1,218 43°26?41.9?N 75°5?9.55?W / 43.444972°N 75.0859861°W / 43.444972; -75.0859861 (Forestport Tower (demolished)) Insulated against ground, demolished
1954 2 Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma (AKA KWTV Transmission Tower), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA 1954 480.5 1,576 35°32?58.59?N 97°29?50.27?W / 35.5496083°N 97.4972972°W / 35.5496083; -97.4972972 (Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma)  
1956 3 KOBR-TV Tower, Caprock, New Mexico, USA 1956 490.7 1,610 33°22?31.31?N 103°46?14.3?W / 33.3753639°N 103.770639°W / 33.3753639; -103.770639 (KOBR-TV Tower) Collapsed in 1960; rebuilt
1959 1 WGME TV Tower, Raymond, Maine, USA 1959 495 1,624 43°55?28.43?N 70°29?26.72?W / 43.9245639°N 70.4907556°W / 43.9245639; -70.4907556 (WGME TV Tower)
1960 2 KFVS TV Mast, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, USA 1960 511.1 1,677 37°25?44.5?N 89°30?13.84?W / 37.429028°N 89.5038444°W / 37.429028; -89.5038444 (KFVS TV Mast)
1962 1 WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower, Cusseta, Georgia, USA 1962 533 1,749 32°19?25.09?N 84°46?45.07?W / 32.3236361°N 84.7791861°W / 32.3236361; -84.7791861 (WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower)
1963 0 WIMZ-FM-Tower, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA 1963 534.01 1,752 36°08?05.49?N 83°43?28.01?W / 36.1348583°N 83.7244472°W / 36.1348583; -83.7244472 (WIMZ-FM-Tower)
1963 11 KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA 1963 628.8 2,063 47°20?31.85?N 97°17?21.13?W / 47.3421806°N 97.2892028°W / 47.3421806; -97.2892028 (KVLY-TV mast)
1974 17 Warsaw Radio Mast, G?bin, Poland 1974 646.4 2,121 52°22?3.74?N 19°48?8.73?E / 52.3677056°N 19.8024250°E / 52.3677056; 19.8024250 (Konstantynow Radio Mast (destroyed)) Mast radiator insulated against ground, collapsed in 1991
1991 present KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA 1963 628.8 2,063 47°20?31.85?N 97°17?21.13?W / 47.3421806°N 97.2892028°W / 47.3421806; -97.2892028 (KVLY-TV mast)

Tallest towers

Towers include observation towers, monuments and other structures not generally considered to be "habitable buildings", they are meant for "regular access by humans, but not for living in or office work, and are self-supporting or freestanding, which means no guy-wires for support", meaning it excludes from this list of continuously habitable buildings and skyscrapers as well as radio and TV masts.

Bridge towers or pylons, chimneys, transmission towers, and most large statues allow human access for maintenance, but not as part of their normal operation, and are therefore not considered to be towers.

The Tokyo Skytree, completed in February 2012, is 634 m (2,080 ft), making it the tallest tower, and second-tallest freestanding structure in the world.[28][29][30]

History of tallest tower

Tokyo Tower held the record of being the tallest tower in the world from 1958 to 1967. In addition, it held the record of being the tallest structure in Japan from 1958 to 2011, when the Tokyo Skytree (the current tallest tower in the world) surpassed it.

The following is a list of structures that have historically held the title as the tallest towers in the world.

Tallest historical towers
From To Tower Town Pinnacle height
280 BC 1180 AD Pharos Lighthouse Alexandria, Egypt 122 m
1180 1240 Malmesbury Abbey Tower Malmesbury, UK 131.3 m
1240 1311 Tower of Old St Paul's Cathedral London, UK 150 m
1311 1549 Tower of Lincoln Cathedral Lincoln, UK 159.7 m
1549 1647 Tower of St Mary's church Stralsund, Germany 151 m
1647 1874 Tower of Strasbourg Cathedral Strasbourg, France 142 m
1874 1876 Tower of St. Nikolai Hamburg, Germany 147 m
1876 1880 Tower of Rouen Cathedral Rouen, France 151 m
1880 1889 Tower of Cologne Cathedral Cologne, Germany 157.38 m
1889 1958 Eiffel Tower Paris, France 312.3 m
1958 1967 Tokyo Tower Tokyo, Japan 332.6 m
1967 1975 Ostankino Tower Moscow, Russia 540.1 m
1975 2010 CN Tower Toronto, Ontario, Canada 553.33 m
2010 2011 Canton Tower Guangzhou, China 600 m
2011 present Tokyo Skytree Tokyo, Japan 634 m

Tallest structures, freestanding structures, and buildings

Burj Khalifa and other tallest structures

The list categories are:

  • The structures (supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that might use some external support constructions like cables and are fully built in air. Only the three tallest are listed, as more than fifty US TV masts have stated heights of 600-610 metres (1,970-2,000 ft).
  • The structures (media supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that are not totally built in the air but are using support from other, denser media like salt water. All structures greater than 500 metres (1,640 ft) are listed.
  • The freestanding structures list uses pinnacle height and includes structures over 500 metres (1,640 ft) that do not use guy-wires or other external supports. This means truly free standing on its own or, in similar sense, non-supported structures.
  • The building list uses architectural height (excluding antennas) and includes only buildings, defined as consisting of habitable floors. Both of these follow CTBUH guidelines. All supertall buildings (450 m and higher) are listed.

Notes:

  • Eight buildings appear on the freestanding structures category list with heights different from another category. This is due to the different measurement specifications of those lists.
  • Only current heights and, where reasonable, target heights are listed. Historical heights of structures that no longer exist, for example, for having collapsed, are excluded.
Rank Name and location Year
completed
Architectural top[31]
(metres)
Architectural top
(feet)
Floors
Structures (supported)
1 KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, United States 1963 629 2,064 -
2 KXJB-TV mast, Galesburg, North Dakota, United States 1998 628 2,060 -
3 KXTV/KOVR Tower, Walnut Grove, California, United States 2000 625 2,051 -
Structures (media supported)
1 Petronius Platform, Gulf of Mexico 2000 610 2,000 -
2 Baldpate Platform, Gulf of Mexico 1998 580 1,900 -
3 Bullwinkle Platform, Gulf of Mexico 1989 529 1,736 -
Freestanding structures
1 Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2009 829.8 2,722 163
2 Tokyo Skytree, Tokyo, Japan 2012 634 2,080 -
3 Shanghai Tower, Shanghai, China 2015 632 2,073 128
4 Abraj Al Bait, Makkah, Saudi Arabia 2011 601 1,972 120
5 Ping An Finance Centre, Shenzhen, China 2016 599 1,965 115
6 Goldin Finance 117, Tianjin, China 2016 597 1,959 117
7 Canton Tower, Guangzhou, China 2010 600 1,969 -
8 Lotte World Tower, Seoul, South Korea 2016 555 1,821 123
9 CN Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1976 553 1,814 -
10 One World Trade Center, New York City, USA 2013 541.3 1,776 104
11 Ostankino Tower, Moscow, Russia 1967 540 1,770 -
12 Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre, Guangzhou, China 2016 530 1,739 111
13 Willis Tower, Chicago, United States 1974 527 1,729 108
14 Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan 2004 509 1,670 101
Buildings
1 Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2010 828 2,717 163
2 Shanghai Tower, Shanghai, China 2015 632 2,073 128
3 Abraj Al Bait, Mecca, Saudi Arabia 2011 601 1,972 120
4 Ping An Finance Centre, Shenzhen, China 2016 599 1,965 115
5 Lotte World Tower, Seoul, South Korea 2016 555 1,821 123
6 One World Trade Center, New York City, USA 2013 541.3 1,776 104
7 Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre, Guangzhou, China 2016 530 1,739 111
8 Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan 2004 509 1,670 101
9 Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China 2008 492 1,614 101
10 International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong 2010 484 1,588 118
11 Changsha IFS Tower T1, Changsha, China 2017 452.1 1,483 88
12 Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 451.9 1,483 88
13 Zifeng Tower, Nanjing, China 2009 450 1,480 89
13 Suzhou IFS, Suzhou, China 2017 450 1,476 92

Source: Emporis

References

  1. ^ a b "CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2008.
  2. ^ "Burj Dubai all set for 09/09/09 soft opening". Emirates Business24/7. Retrieved 2009.
  3. ^ "Burj Dubai surpasses KVLY-TV mast to become the world's tallest man-made structure" (Press release). Emaar. Retrieved 2008.
  4. ^ ctbuh. "CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings". www.ctbuh.org. Retrieved .
  5. ^ ctbuh. "CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings". www.ctbuh.org. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "Max Bögl installs record-breaking 246.5-metre turbine".
  7. ^ "Comansa Jie builds the world's highest cooling towers". Construcciones Metálicas COMANSA S.A. August 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  8. ^ "Tallest Unsupported Flagpole". Guinness Book of World Records.
  9. ^ "Tower West". Retrieved 2015.
  10. ^ McCord, Keith (May 23, 2012). "Tallest structure in West demolished". KSL-TV. Salt Lake City, UT. Retrieved 2012.
  11. ^ "Brazil builds giant Amazon observation tower". BBC News.
  12. ^ Schwanke D. et al. (2003). Mixed-use Development Handbook, 2nd edition. Washington: Urban Land Institute ISBN 978-0-87420-888-7
  13. ^ a b c d "History of Measuring Tall Buildings". Retrieved 2015.
  14. ^ Binders, George (August 2006). 101 of the World's Tallest Buildings. p. 102.
  15. ^ a b "Willis Tower, Chicago - SkyscraperPage.com". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2015.
  16. ^ "CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings". Retrieved 2015.
  17. ^ "CTBUH changes height criteria, Burj Khalifa height increases". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. November 17, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  18. ^ a b "CTBUH Changes Height Criteria". Retrieved 2015.
  19. ^ "CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings". Ctbuh.org. Retrieved .
  20. ^ Haughton, Brian(2007),Hidden History: Lost Civilizations, Secret Knowledge, and Ancient Mysteries, p.167
  21. ^ Michael Woods, Mary B. Woods(2009), Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, p.41
  22. ^ "Lincoln Cathedral". Retrieved 2015.
  23. ^ Darwin Porter, Danforth Prince(2010), Frommer's England 2010, p.588
  24. ^ Mary Jane Taber(1905), The cathedrals of England: an account of some of their distinguishing characteristics, p.100
  25. ^ A Brief History of the World's Tallest Buildings Time magazine
  26. ^ Kendrick, A. F. (1902). "2: The Central Tower". The Cathedral Church of Lincoln: A History and Description of its Fabric and a List of the Bishops. London: George Bell & Sons. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-178-03666-4. The tall spire of timber, covered with lead, which originally crowned this tower reached an altitude, it is said, of 525 feet; but this is doubtful. This spire was blown down during a tempest in January 1547-8.
  27. ^ "The Empire State Building". Wired New York. Retrieved 2007.
  28. ^ "Tokyo Sky Tree construction ends: World's tallest tower prepares to open". Cable News Network. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  29. ^ Danielle Demetriou (1 March 2012). "Tokyo unveils world's tallest communications tower". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2012.
  30. ^ "Tokyo Skytree website" (in Japanese). Tobu Railway Co., Ltd. & Tobu Tower Skytree Co., Ltd. Retrieved .
  31. ^ height for inhabited buildings with floors; does not include TV towers and antennas

External links


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