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In 1907, the Public Service Commission assumed responsibility for the economic and safety regulation of privately operated transportation; railroad and bus safety inspection; and, approval for the installation of protection for or elimination of at-grade rail highway crossings.
In 1908, the New York State Department of Highways was established by the Highway Act. It was headed by a three-member Highway Commission, appointed in 1909.
In 1911, the Highway Commission was abolished, and was succeeded by a State Superintendent of Highways.
In 1927, the Department of Public Works took over the duties of the State Engineer and Surveyor, unifying responsibility for highways, canals and public buildings,
In 1967, the Department of Transportation was formed to deal with the state's complex transportation system, and absorbed among others the Department of Public Works.
The department comprises 11 regional offices and 68 county transportation maintenance residencies. Tioga County was moved to adjacent region in August 2007, Wayne County was moved from Region 3 to Region 4 in the late 1990s.
NYSDOT regions and the counties they serve are:
NYS DOT has several Traffic Management Centers (TMC) located throughout the 11 regions in New York State.
Region 1 (Capital Region): The Region 1 TMC or CRTMC (Capital Region Traffic Management Center) is an attachment of the New York State Police Communications Section also known as SP COMSEC, formally located at the State Police Division Headquarters, building 22 on the W. Averell Harriman State Office Building Campus in Albany, NY. The TMC moved in September, 2012 along with SP COMSEC to the new NYSP Troop G Headquarters located in Latham, NY. 
Region 1 is also the home to the NYS DOT STICC (Statewide Transportation Information Coordination Center), manned 24/7, STICC is responsible for the coordination & logistics of statewide resources during major incidents within New York State and is currently located on the 1st floor of the DOT Headquarters in Colonie, NY.