Non-Hispanic Whites
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Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic whites
White, not Hispanic or Latino
Total population
Decrease197,285,202
60.7% of the total U.S. population (2017)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States
Languages
Predominantly American English, with local minorities who speak American French (Louisiana, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire), Pennsylvania German language (Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana), and immigrant languages (esp. Russian, Arabic, Italian, Polish, and Greek[2])
Religion
Predominantly Christianity; minorities practice Judaism, Islam, and other faiths
Related ethnic groups
European Americans
European diaspora

Non-Hispanic whites or whites not of Hispanic or Latino origin (commonly referred to as Anglo-Americans)[3][4][5] are European Americans who are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity, as defined by the United States Census Bureau.[6][7] Hispanics and Latinos can be of any race, as the United States Census Bureau regards the Hispanic ethnicity as independent of race.[8] Non-Hispanic White Americans are a subcategory of White Americans, the other being White Hispanic and Latino Americans.

Americans of European ancestry represent ethnic groups that combined account for more than half of the share of the Non-Hispanic white population are the Germans, the Irish, and English (additionally Americans).

In the United States, this population was first derived from English (and, to a lesser degree, French) settlement of the Americas, as well as settlement by other Europeans such as the Germans and Dutch that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States). Continued growth since the early 19th century is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike as well as periodically massive immigration from European countries, especially Germany, Ireland, England, Italy, Greece, Sweden and Norway, as well as Poland, Russia, and many more countries. It typically refers to an English-speaking American in distinction to Spanish speakers in Mexico and the Southwestern states; German speakers (Amish) in North Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania; French speakers in Quebec,[9]New England, and Louisiana;[10] and traditionally Russian and Yiddish-speaking American Jews in New York.[11][12]

In 2011, for the first time in U.S. history, non-Hispanic whites accounted for under half of the births in the country, with 49.6% of total births.[13] Over 50% of children under age one are minorities.[14][15] Between 2015 and 2016 for the first time in American history the population of non-Hispanic whites declined by .005% and then declined by .016% between 2016 and 2017 to a historic low of 60.7%.[16][17][18] Between 2042 and 2045, the United States is projected to be a majority minority nation[19][20] and by 2060 the white population will decline by roughly 16.1 million.[21]

History

The first Europeans who came to North Americas were Norse explorers around the year 1000, however they ultimately left the continent leaving no permanent settlements behind.[22] Later, pilgrims and colonists came in the 1600s along the east coast, mainly from England, in search of economic opportunities and religious freedom.[23] Over time emigrants from Europe settled the coastal regions developing a commercial economy. Between one-half and two-thirds of white immigrants to the American colonies between the 1630s and American Revolution had come as indentured servants.[24] The total number of European immigrants to all 13 colonies before 1775 was about 500,000; of these 55,000 were involuntary prisoners. Of the 450,000 or so European arrivals who came voluntarily, an estimated 48% were indentured.[25]

By the time of American Revolution there were about 2.5 million whites in the colonies.[26] The white population was largely of English, German, Irish, Scotch-Irish and French Huguenot descent at the time.[27] Between the revolution and the 1820s there was relatively little immigration to the U.S. Starting after the 1820s large scale migration to the U.S began and lasted until the 1920s.[28] Many of the newcomers were of Irish,[29] Italian,[30] and Polish[31] descent which lead to a nativist backlash. Some Americans worried about the growing Catholic population and wanted to maintain America as an Anglo Saxon Protestant nation.[32][33] Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century European mass emigration to the United States and high birthrates grew the white population.[34][35][36] After the American Revolution white Americans settled the entire nation west of Appalachian Mountains, ultimately displacing the natives and populating the entire country by the late 19th century. All immigration to the US declined markedly between the mid 1920s until the 1960s due to a combination of immigration laws, The Great Depression, and The Second World War.[37]

Since 1965 white migration to the U.S has been relatively minor compared to other racial and ethnic groups. During the 1990s there was a moderate increase from former communist countries in Eastern Europe.[38] At the same time birthrates amongst whites have fallen below replacement level.[39]

Culture

White Americans have developed their own music, art, cuisine, fashion, and political economy largely based on a combination of traditional European ones.[40][41] Most religious white Americans are Christian.[42] Many Europeans often Anglicized their names and over time most Europeans adopted English as their primary language and intermarried with other white groups.[43][44]

Population stagnation and decline

The falling percentage of non-Hispanic white Americans is due to multiple factors:

1. Immigration. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants in the world with the vast majority coming from countries where the population is of non-white and/or Hispanic origin. Immigration to the U.S. from European countries has been in a steady decline since World War II averaging 56% of all immigrants in the 1950s and declining to 35% of all immigrants in the 1960s, 20% in the 1970s, 11% in the 1980s, 14% in the 1990s, and 13% in the 2000s. In 2009, approximately 90% of all immigrants came from non-European countries.[45] The U.S. does receive a small number of non-Hispanic white immigrants, mainly from countries such as Brazil, Canada, Poland, Russia, and the UK, as well as Egypt and Iran.[46]

2. Intermarriage. The USA is seeing an unprecedented increase in intermarriage between the various racial and ethnic groups. In 2008, a record 14.6% of all new marriages in the United States were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity from one another. 9% of non-Hispanic whites who married in 2008 married either a non-white or Hispanic. Among all newlyweds in 2008, intermarried pairings were primarily white-Hispanic of any race (41%) as compared to white-Asian (15%), white-black (11%), and other combinations (33%). Other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and Native Indigenous Americans.[47] The children of such unions would not automatically be classified as white non-Hispanic, although note that one self-identifies their racial and/or ethnic category, and would not preclude a certain number identifying themselves as non-Hispanic white rather than white Hispanic once they grow up, particularly if in addition to having a European appearance they do not speak Spanish or carry a Spanish surname, for example. According to Pew, 59% of non-Hispanics who acknowledged having some Hispanic ancestry of any race but do not consider themselves Hispanic and are able to pass as white non-Hispanic are tallied as such, adding about 3 million persons to the non-Hispanic white population rather than to the white Hispanic population.[48]

3. Methodology. In the 2000 Census, people were allowed to check more than one race in addition to choosing "Hispanic." There was strong opposition to this from some civil rights activists who feared that this would reduce the size of various racial minorities. The government responded by counting those who are white and of one minority race or ethnicity as minorities for the purposes of civil-rights monitoring and enforcement. Hence one could be 1/8th black and still be counted as a minority.[49] Also, because this does not apply to Hispanic origin (one is either Hispanic or not, but cannot be both Hispanic and non-Hispanic), the offspring of Hispanics and non-Hispanics are usually counted as Hispanic.[50] In 2017, the Pew Research Center reported that high intermarriage rates and declining Latin American immigration has led to 11% of U.S. adults with Hispanic ancestry (5.0 million people) to no longer identify as Hispanic.[51] First generation immigrants from Spain and Latin America identify as Hispanic at very high rates (97%) which reduces in each succeeding generation, second generation (92%), third generation (77%), and fourth generation (50%).[51]

4. Attrition. Minority populations are younger than non-Hispanic whites. The national median age in 2011 was 37.3 with non-Hispanic whites having the oldest median age (42.3) while Hispanics have the youngest (27.6). Non-Hispanic blacks (32.9) and non-Hispanic Asians (35.9) also are younger than whites.[52] In 2013, the Census Bureau reported that for the first time, due to the more advanced age profile of the non-Hispanic white population, non-Hispanic whites died at a faster rate than non-Hispanic white births.[53]

Although non-Hispanic whites are declining as a percentage, in actual numbers they were[54] growing. From 2000 - 2010 the non-Hispanic white population grew from 194,552,774 to 196,817,552 - A growth of 1.2% over the 10-year period, due to residual population momentum.[55]

Population by settlement

White Non-Hispanic population by state or territory (1990-2012)[56][57]
State/Territory Pop 1990 % pop
1990
Pop 2000 % pop
2000
Pop 2010 % pop
2010
Pop 2012 % pop
2012
% growth
2000-2012
% pop
1990-2012
Alabama Alabama 2,960,167 73.3% 3,125,819 70.3% 3,204,402 67.0% 3,212,468 66.6% +2.8% -6.7 pp
Alaska Alaska 406,722 73.9% 423,788 67.6% 455,320 64.1% 460,453 63.0% +8.7% -10.9 pp
Arizona Arizona 2,626,185 71.7% 3,274,258 63.8% 3,695,647 57.8% 3,730,370 56.9% +13.9% -14.8 pp
Arkansas Arkansas 1,933,082 82.2% 2,100,135 78.6% 2,173,469 74.5% 2,179,168 73.9% +3.8% -8.3 pp
California California 17,029,126 57.2% 15,816,790 46.7% 14,956,253 40.1% 14,904,055 39.2% -5.8% -18.0 pp
Colorado Colorado 2,658,945 80.7% 3,202,880 74.5% 3,520,793 70.0% 3,599,838 69.4% +12.4% -11.3 pp
Connecticut Connecticut 2,754,184 83.8% 2,638,845 77.5% 2,546,262 71.2% 2,512,773 70.0% -4.8% -13.8 pp
Delaware Delaware 528,092 79.3% 567,973 72.5% 586,752 65.3% 589,642 64.3% +3.8% -15.0 pp
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 166,131 27.4% 159,178 27.8% 209,464 34.8% 222,975 35.3% +40.1% +7.9 pp
Florida Florida 9,475,326 73.2% 10,458,509 65.4% 10,884,722 57.9% 10,966,711 56.8% +4.9% -16.4 pp
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 4,543,425 70.1% 5,128,661 62.6% 5,413,920 55.9% 5,460,416 55.0% +6.5% -15.1 pp
Hawaii Hawaii 347,644 31.4% 277,091 22.9% 309,343 22.7% 317,032 22.8% +14.4% -8.6 pp
Idaho Idaho 928,661 92.2% 1,139,291 88.0% 1,316,243 84.0% 1,330,942 83.4% +16.8% -8.8 pp
Illinois Illinois 8,550,208 74.8% 8,424,140 67.8% 8,167,753 63.7% 8,093,687 62.9% -3.9% -11.9 pp
Indiana Indiana 4,965,242 89.6% 5,219,373 85.8% 5,286,453 81.5% 5,289,249 80.9% +1.3% -8.7 pp
Iowa Iowa 2,663,840 95.9% 2,710,344 92.6% 2,701,123 88.7% 2,705,704 88.0% -0.2% -7.9 pp
Kansas Kansas 2,190,524 88.4% 2,233,997 83.1% 2,230,539 78.2% 2,234,826 77.4% 0.0% -11.0 pp
Kentucky Kentucky 3,378,022 91.7% 3,608,013 89.3% 3,745,655 86.3% 3,760,302 85.8% +4.2% -5.9 pp
Louisiana Louisiana 2,776,022 65.8% 2,794,391 62.5% 2,734,884 60.3% 2,748,748 59.7% -1.6% -6.1 pp
Maine Maine 1,203,357 98.0% 1,230,297 96.5% 1,254,297 94.4% 1,250,688 94.1% +1.7% -3.9 pp
Maryland Maryland 3,326,109 69.6% 3,286,547 62.1% 3,157,958 54.7% 3,166,263 53.8% -3.7% -15.8 pp
Massachusetts Massachusetts 5,280,292 87.8% 5,198,359 81.9% 4,984,800 76.1% 5,003,798 75.3% -3.7% -12.6 pp
Michigan Michigan 7,649,951 82.3% 7,806,691 78.6% 7,569,939 76.6% 7,523,647 76.1% -3.6% -6.2 pp
Minnesota Minnesota 4,101,266 93.7% 4,337,143 88.2% 4,405,142 83.1% 4,424,944 82.3% +2.0% -11.4 pp
Mississippi Mississippi 1,624,198 63.1% 1,727,908 60.7% 1,722,287 58.0% 1,717,214 57.5% -0.6% -5.6 pp
Missouri Missouri 4,448,465 86.9% 4,686,474 83.8% 4,850,748 81.0% 4,848,758 80.5% +3.5% -6.4 pp
Montana Montana 733,878 91.8% 807,823 89.5% 868,628 87.8% 876,782 87.2% +8.5% -4.6 pp
Nebraska Nebraska 1,460,095 92.5% 1,494,494 87.3% 1,499,753 82.1% 1,509,066 81.3% +1.0% -11.2 pp
Nevada Nevada 946,357 78.7% 1,303,001 65.2% 1,462,081 54.1% 1,455,200 52.7% +11.7% -26.0 pp
New Hampshire New Hampshire 1,079,484 97.3% 1,175,252 95.1% 1,215,050 92.3% 1,212,389 91.8% +3.2% -5.5 pp
New Jersey New Jersey 5,718,966 74.0% 5,557,209 66.0% 5,214,878 59.3% 5,134,994 57.9% -7.6% -16.1 pp
New Mexico New Mexico 764,164 50.4% 813,495 44.7% 833,810 40.5% 827,066 39.7% +1.7% -10.7 pp
New York (state) New York 12,460,189 69.3% 11,760,981 62.0% 11,304,247 58.3% 11,227,534 57.4% -4.5% -11.9 pp
North Carolina North Carolina 4,971,127 75.0% 5,647,155 70.2% 6,223,995 65.3% 6,292,533 64.5% +11.4% -10.5 pp
North Dakota North Dakota 601,592 94.2% 589,149 91.7% 598,007 88.9% 616,194 88.1% +4.6% -6.1 pp
Ohio Ohio 9,444,622 87.1% 9,538,111 84.0% 9,359,263 81.1% 9,309,291 80.6% -2.4% -6.5 pp
Oklahoma Oklahoma 2,547,588 81.0% 2,556,368 74.1% 2,575,381 68.7% 2,585,779 67.8% +1.2% -13.2 pp
Oregon Oregon 2,579,732 90.8% 2,857,616 83.5% 3,005,848 78.5% 3,026,649 77.6% +5.9% -13.2 pp
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 10,422,058 87.7% 10,322,455 84.1% 10,094,652 79.5% 10,035,953 78.6% -2.8% -9.1 pp
Rhode Island Rhode Island 896,109 89.3% 858,433 81.9% 803,685 76.4% 791,560 75.4% -7.8% -13.9 pp
South Carolina South Carolina 2,390,056 68.5% 2,652,291 66.1% 2,962,740 64.1% 3,016,843 63.9% +13.7% -4.6 pp
South Dakota South Dakota 634,788 91.2% 664,585 88.0% 689,502 84.7% 698,504 83.8% +5.1% -7.4 pp
Tennessee Tennessee 4,027,631 82.6% 4,505,930 79.2% 4,800,782 75.6% 4,840,886 75.0% +7.4% -7.6 pp
Texas Texas 10,291,680 60.6% 10,933,313 52.4% 11,397,345 45.3% 11,554,528 44.3% +5.7% -16.3 pp
Utah Utah 1,571,254 91.2% 1,904,265 85.3% 2,221,719 80.4% 2,278,904 79.8% +19.7% -11.4 pp
Vermont Vermont 552,184 98.1% 585,431 96.2% 590,223 94.3% 588,138 94.0% +0.5% -4.3 pp
Virginia Virginia 4,701,650 76.0% 4,965,637 70.2% 5,186,450 64.8% 5,234,502 63.9% +5.4% -12.1 pp
Washington (state) Washington 4,221,622 86.7% 4,652,490 78.9% 4,876,804 72.5% 4,927,042 71.4% +5.9% -15.3 pp
West Virginia West Virginia 1,718,896 95.8% 1,709,966 94.6% 1,726,256 93.2% 1,721,901 92.8% +0.7% -3.0 pp
Wisconsin Wisconsin 4,464,677 91.3% 4,681,630 87.3% 4,738,411 83.3% 4,738,842 82.8% +1.2% -8.5 pp
Wyoming Wyoming 412,711 91.0% 438,799 88.9% 483,874 85.9% 487,672 84.6% +11.1% -6.4 pp
American Samoa American Samoa 682 1.2% 611 1.1% -10.4%
Guam Guam 10,666 6.9% 11,001 6.9% +3.1%
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands 1,274 1.8% 916 1.7% -28.1%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 33,966 0.9% 26,946 0.7% 23,542 0.6% -30.7%
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands 8,580 7.9% 3,830 3.6% -55.3%
United States United States of America 188,128,296 75.6% 194,552,774 69.1% 196,817,552 63.7% 197,243,423 62.8% +1.4% -11.9 pp

In 2012, in 37 out of the 50 U.S. states non-Hispanic whites made up a greater percentage of the state's population than the U.S. overall share of 62.8%; however, the 13 states with greater shares of non-whites include the four most populous states (California, Texas, New York, and Florida). Also, note that while the total non-Hispanic white population has grown since 2000 in 36 out of the 50 states, the relative share of non-Hispanic whites in the overall state population has declined in all 50 states during that same time period.

As of 2016, five states are majority minority: Hawaii, California, New Mexico, Texas, and Nevada.

Historical population by state or territory

Non-Mexican White (1910-1930) and Non-Hispanic White % of population (1940-2010) by U.S. State[58][59][60]
State/Territory 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2016
Alabama Alabama 65.3% 73.3% 73.3% 73.3% 70.3% 67.0% 65.8%
Alaska Alaska 48.3% 77.2% 75.8% 73.9% 67.6% 64.1% 61.2%
Arizona Arizona 65.1% 74.3% 74.5% 71.7% 63.8% 57.8% 55.5%
Arkansas Arkansas 75.2% 81.0% 82.2% 82.2% 78.6% 74.5% 72.9%
California California 89.5% 76.3% 66.6% 57.2% 46.7% 40.1% 37.7%
Colorado Colorado 90.3% 84.6% 82.7% 80.7% 74.5% 70.0% 68.6%
Connecticut Connecticut 97.9% 91.4% 88.0% 83.8% 77.5% 71.2% 67.7%
Delaware Delaware 86.4% 84.1% 81.3% 79.3% 72.5% 65.3% 62.9%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 71.4% 26.5% 25.7% 27.4% 27.8% 34.8% 36.4%
Florida Florida 71.5% 77.9% 76.7% 73.2% 65.4% 57.9% 54.9%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 65.2% 73.4% 71.6% 70.1% 62.6% 55.9% 53.4%
Hawaii Hawaii 31.5% 38.0% 31.1% 31.4% 22.9% 22.7% 22.1%
Idaho Idaho 98.4% 95.9% 93.9% 92.2% 88.0% 84.0% 82.4%
Illinois Illinois 94.7% 83.5% 78.0% 74.8% 67.8% 63.7% 61.7%
Indiana Indiana 96.3% 91.7% 90.2% 89.6% 85.8% 81.5% 79.6%
Iowa Iowa 99.2% 98.0% 96.9% 95.9% 92.6% 88.7% 86.2%
Kansas Kansas 95.6% 92.7% 90.5% 88.4% 83.1% 78.2% 76.3%
Kentucky Kentucky 92.5% 92.4% 91.7% 91.7% 89.3% 86.3% 85.0%
Louisiana Louisiana 63.7% 68.2% 67.6% 65.8% 62.5% 60.3% 59.0%
Maine Maine 99.7% 99.1% 98.3% 98.0% 96.5% 94.4% 93.5%
Maryland Maryland 83.3% 80.4% 73.9% 69.6% 62.1% 54.7% 51.5%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 98.6% 95.4% 92.3% 87.8% 81.9% 76.1% 72.7%
Michigan Michigan 95.7% 87.1% 84.1% 82.3% 78.6% 76.6% 75.4%
Minnesota Minnesota 99.0% 97.7% 96.1% 93.7% 88.2% 83.1% 80.6%
Mississippi Mississippi 50.6% 62.6% 63.6% 63.1% 60.7% 58.0% 56.9%
Missouri Missouri 93.4% 88.6% 87.7% 86.9% 83.8% 81.0% 79.7%
Montana Montana 96.2% 94.7% 93.4% 91.8% 89.5% 87.8% 86.5%
Nebraska Nebraska 98.2% 95.2% 94.0% 92.5% 87.3% 82.1% 79.6%
Nevada Nevada 91.6% 86.7% 83.2% 78.7% 65.2% 54.1% 49.9%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 99.9% 99.1% 98.4% 97.3% 95.1% 92.3% 90.8%
New Jersey New Jersey 94.3% 84.7% 79.1% 74.0% 66.0% 59.3% 55.8%
New Mexico New Mexico 50.9% 53.8% 52.6% 50.4% 44.7% 40.5% 38.1%
New York (state) New York 94.6% 80.1% 75.0% 69.3% 62.0% 58.3% 55.8%
North Carolina North Carolina 71.9% 76.5% 75.3% 75.0% 70.2% 65.3% 63.5%
North Dakota North Dakota 98.3% 96.9% 95.5% 94.2% 91.7% 88.9% 85.0%
Ohio Ohio 95.0% 89.8% 88.2% 87.1% 84.0% 81.1% 79.5%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 89.9% 88.1% 85.0% 81.0% 74.1% 68.7% 66.2%
Oregon Oregon 98.6% 95.8% 93.3% 90.8% 83.5% 78.5% 76.4%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 95.1% 90.3% 89.1% 87.7% 84.1% 79.5% 77.0%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 98.3% 96.1% 93.4% 89.3% 81.9% 76.4% 73.3%
South Carolina South Carolina 57.1% 69.0% 68.3% 68.5% 66.1% 64.1% 63.9%
South Dakota South Dakota 96.2% 94.6% 92.3% 91.2% 88.0% 84.7% 82.5%
Tennessee Tennessee 82.5% 83.7% 83.1% 82.6% 79.2% 75.6% 74.2%
Texas Texas 74.1% 69.6% 65.7% 60.6% 52.4% 45.3% 42.6%
Utah Utah 98.2% 93.6% 92.4% 91.2% 85.3% 80.4% 78.8%
Vermont Vermont 99.7% 99.2% 98.5% 98.1% 96.2% 94.3% 93.1%
Virginia Virginia 75.3% 80.1% 78.2% 76.0% 70.2% 64.8% 62.4%
Washington (state) Washington 97.7% 93.6% 90.2% 86.7% 78.9% 72.5% 69.5%
West Virginia West Virginia 93.7% 95.7% 95.6% 95.8% 94.6% 93.2% 92.3%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 99.2% 95.6% 93.6% 91.3% 87.3% 83.3% 81.7%
Wyoming Wyoming 95.9% 92.1% 92.0% 91.0% 88.9% 85.9% 84.1%
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 0.9% 0.7% 0.6%

See also

References

  1. ^ "B03002 HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE - United States - 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ "Table 53. Languages Spoken At Home by Language: 2009", The 2012 Statistical Abstract, U.S. Census Bureau, archived from the original on 2007-12-25, retrieved
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: "Anglo" North American A white English-speaking person of British or northern European origin, in particular (in the U.S.) as distinct from a Hispanic American or (in Canada) as distinct from a French-speaker.
  4. ^ Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of Anglo in English: It is defined as a synonym for Anglo-American--Page 86
  5. ^ "Anglo - Definitions from Dictionary.com; American Heritage Dictionary". Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved . Usage Note: In contemporary American usage, Anglo is used primarily in direct contrast to Hispanic or Latino. In this context it is not limited to persons of English or even British descent, but can be generally applied to any non-Hispanic white person, making mother tongue (in this case English) the primary factor. Thus in parts of the United States such as the Southwest United States with large Hispanic populations, an American of Polish, Irish, or German heritage might be termed an Anglo just as readily as a person of English descent. However, in parts of the country where the Hispanic community is smaller or nonexistent, or in areas where ethnic distinctions among European groups remain strong, Anglo has little currency as a catch-all term for non-Hispanic whites. Anglo is also used in non-Hispanic contexts. In Canada, where its usage dates at least to 1800, the distinction is between persons of English and French descent. And in American historical contexts Anglo is apt to be used more strictly to refer to persons of English heritage, as in this passage describing the politics of nation-building in pre-Revolutionary America: "The 'unity' of the American people derived ... from the ability and willingness of an Anglo elite to stamp its image on other peoples coming to this country" (Benjamin Schwarz).
  6. ^ "White persons, percent, 2000". Web.archive.org. 4 January 2011. Archived from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Search". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2017.
  8. ^ "Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved . Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic or Latino may be some of those. People in each race group may be either Hispanic or non-Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic.
  9. ^ "Quick Facts about Canada's Francophonie". ocol-clo.gc.ca. 2013-03-21. Retrieved 2013.
  10. ^ "ROACH v. DRESSER IND. VALVE & INSTRUMENT DIVISION - 494 F.Supp. 215 (1980) - Leagle.com". leagle.com.
  11. ^ "2011 National Film Registry More Than a Box of Chocolates".
  12. ^ Robert Moses Shapiro (2003). Why Didn't the Press Shout?: American & International Journalism During the Holocaust. KTAV. p. 18. ISBN 9780881257755.
  13. ^ Tavernise, Sabrina (17 May 2012). "Whites Account for Under Half of Births in U.S." The New York Times. Retrieved 2017.
  14. ^ "It's official: Minority babies are the majority among the nation's infants, but only just". Pew Research Center. June 23, 2016.
  15. ^ Exner, Rich (July 3, 2012). "Americans under age one now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, OH.
  16. ^ Bureau, US Census. "Midwest Home to Most of the Counties With Decreases in Median Age". The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved .
  17. ^ Frey, William H. (2018-06-21). "US White Population Declines and Generation "Z-Plus" is Minority White, Census Shows". Brookings. Retrieved .
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