The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ethics:
Ethics - major branch of philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life. It is significantly broader than the common conception of analyzing right and wrong. A central aspect of ethics is "the good life", the life worth living or life that is simply satisfying, which is held by many philosophers to be more important than moral conduct.
What type of thing is ethics?
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology.
The following examples of questions that might be considered in each field illustrate the differences between the fields:
Applied ethics - using philosophical methods, attempts to identify the morally correct course of action in various fields of human life.
- Meta-ethics or moral epistemology- concerns the nature of moral statements, that is, it studies what ethical terms and theories actually refer to.
- Moral nihilism - the meta-ethical view that nothing is intrinsically moral or immoral (see also nihilism)
- Moral syncretism - the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory moral beliefs, often while melding the ethical
practices of various schools of thought.
Normative ethics - concerns what people should believe to be right and wrong.
- Consequentialism - moral theories that hold that the consequences of one's conduct are the true basis for any judgement about the morality of that conduct. Thus, a morally right act (or omission) is one that will produce a good outcome (the end justifies the means).
- Deontological ethics - approach that judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to a rule or rules.
- Moral absolutism - view that certain actions are absolutely right or wrong, regardless of their circumstances such as their consequences or the intentions behind them. Thus stealing, for instance, might be considered to be always immoral, even if done to promote some other good (e.g., stealing food to feed a starving family), and even if it does in the end promote such a good.
- Graded absolutism
- Pragmatic ethics
- Virtue ethics - describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior.
- Aristotelian ethics - the beginning of ethics as a subject, in the form of a systematic study of how individuals should best live. Aristotle believed one's goal should be living well and "eudaimonia", a Greek word often translated as "well-being" or "happiness". This could be achieved by the acquisition of a virtuous character, or in other words having well-chosen excellent habits.
- Eudaimonism - system of ethics that measures happiness in relation to morality.
- Ethics of care - a normative ethical theory
- Ethical egoism - the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest
- Living Ethics
- Religious ethics
- Secular ethics
- Biocentrism (ethics) - an ethical point of view which extends inherent value to non-human species, ecosystems, and processes in nature
- Altruism (ethics) - an ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have a moral obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary at the sacrifice of self-interest
- Rights ethics (thought in the American and French Revolutions)
- Feminist ethics
is based on facts of the Honorable Keesy Josephat of Tanzania who was the first professor in Tanzania at the lait of 1860
Rights and legal concepts
Guidelines and basic concepts
Persons influential in the field of ethics