The earliest ovens were found in Central Europe, and dated to 29,000 BC. They were roasting and boiling pits inside yurts used to cook mammoth. In Ukraine from 20,000 BC they used pits with hot coals covered in ashes. The food was wrapped in leaves and set on top, then covered with earth. In camps found in Mezhirich, each mammoth bone house had a hearth used for heating and cooking.
Ovens were used by cultures who lived in the Indus Valley and in pre-dynastic Egypt. By 3200 BC, each mud-brick house had an oven in settlements across the Indus Valley. Ovens were used to cook food and to make bricks. Pre-dynastic civilizations in Egypt used kilns around 5000-4000 BC to make pottery.
Culinary historians credit the Greeks for developing bread baking significantly. Front-loaded bread ovens were developed in ancient Greece. The Greeks created a wide variety of doughs, loaf shapes, and styles of serving bread with other foods. Baking developed as a trade and profession as bread increasingly was prepared outside of the family home by specially trained workers to be sold to the public.
During the Middle Ages, instead of earth and ceramic ovens, Europeans used fireplaces in conjunction with large cauldrons. These were similar to the Dutch oven. Following the Middle-Ages, ovens underwent many changes over time from wood, iron, coal, gas, and even electric. Each design had its own motivation and purpose. The wood burning stoves saw improvement through the addition of fire chambers that allowed better containment and release of smoke. Another recognizable oven would be the cast-iron stove. These were first used around the early 1700s when they themselves underwent several variations including the Stewart Oberlin iron stove that was smaller and had its own chimney.
In the early part of the 19th century, coal ovens were developed. Its shape was cylindrical and was made of heavy cast-iron. The gas oven saw its first use as early as the beginning of the 19th century as well. Gas stoves became very common household ovens once gas lines were available to most houses and neighborhoods. James Sharp patented one of the first gas stoves in 1826. Other various improvements to the gas stove included the AGA cooker invented in 1922 by Gustaf Dalén. The first electric ovens were invented in the very late 19th century, however, like many electrical inventions destined for commercial use, mass ownership of electrical ovens could not be a reality until better and more efficient use of electricity was available.
More recently, ovens have become slightly more high-tech in terms of cooking strategy. The microwave as a cooking tool was discovered by Percy Spencer in 1946, and with the help from engineers, the microwave oven was patented. The microwave oven uses microwave radiation to excite the molecules in food causing friction, thus producing heat.
Types of ovens
A double oven
Double oven: a built-in oven fixture that has either two ovens, or one oven and one microwave oven. It is usually built into the kitchen cabinet.
Earth oven: An earth oven is a pit dug into the ground and then heated, usually by rocks or smoldering debris. Historically these have been used by many cultures for cooking. Cooking times are usually long, and the process is usually cooking by slow roasting the food. Earth ovens are among the most common things archaeologists look for at an anthropological dig, as they are one of the key indicators of human civilization and static society.
Ceramic oven: The ceramic oven is an oven constructed of clay or any other ceramic material and takes different forms depending on the culture. The Indians refer to it as a tandoor, and use it for cooking. They can be dated back as far as 3,000 BC, and they have been argued to have their origins in the Indus Valley. Brick ovens are also another ceramic type oven. A culture most notable for the use of brick ovens is Italy and its intimate history with pizza. However, its history also dates further back to Roman times, wherein the brick oven was used not only for commercial use but household use as well.
Gas oven: One of the first recorded uses of a gas stove and oven referenced a dinner party in 1802 hosted by Zachaus Winzler, where all the food was prepared either on a gas stove or in its oven compartment. In 1834, British inventor James Sharp began to commercially produce gas ovens after installing one in his own house. In 1851, the Bower's Registered Gas Stove was displayed at the Great Exhibition. This stove would set the standard and basis for the modern gas oven. Notable improvements to the gas stove since include the addition of the thermostat which assisted in temperature regulation; also an enamel coating was added to the production of gas stoves and ovens in order to help with easier cleaning.
Masonry oven: Masonry ovens consist of a baking chamber made of fireproof brick, concrete, stone, or clay. Though traditionally wood-fired, coal-fired ovens were common in the 19th century. Modern masonry ovens are often fired with natural gas or even electricity, and are closely associated with artisanal bread and pizza. In the past, however, they were also used for any cooking task that required baking.
Microwave oven: An oven that uses micro radiation waves as a source of heat in order to cook food as opposed to a fire source. Conceptualized in 1946, Dr. Percy Spencer allegedly discovered the heating properties of microwaves while studying the magnetron. By 1947, the first commercial microwave was in use in Boston, Mass.
Toaster oven: Toaster ovens are small electric ovens with a front door, wire rack and removable baking pan. To toast bread with a toaster oven, slices of bread are placed horizontally on the rack. When the toast is done, the toaster turns off, but in most cases the door must be opened manually. Most toaster ovens are significantly larger than toasters, but are capable of performing most of the functions of electric ovens, albeit on a much smaller scale.
Wall oven: Wall ovens make it easier to work with large roasting pans and Dutch ovens. A width is typically 24, 27, or 30 inches. Mounted at waist or eye level, a wall oven eliminates bending. However, it can be nested under a countertop to save space. A separate wall oven is expensive compared with a range.
In cooking, the conventional oven is a kitchen appliance used for roasting and heating. Foods normally cooked in this manner include meat, casseroles and baked goods such as bread, cake and other desserts. In modern times, the oven is used to cook and heat food in many households across the globe.
Modern ovens are typically fueled by either natural gas or electricity, with bottle gas models available but not common. When an oven is contained in a complete stove, the fuel used for the oven may be the same as or different from the fuel used for the burners on top of the stove.
Ovens usually can use a variety of methods to cook. The most common may be to heat the oven from below. This is commonly used for baking and roasting. The oven may also be able to heat from the top to provide broiling (US) or grilling (UK/Commonwealth). A fan-assisted oven that uses a small fan to circulate the air in the cooking chamber, can be used. Both are also known as convection ovens. An oven may also provide an integrated rotisserie.
Ovens also vary in the way that they are controlled. The simplest ovens (for example, the AGA cooker) may not have any controls at all; the ovens simply run continuously at various temperatures. More conventional ovens have a simple thermostat which turns the oven on and off and selects the temperature at which it will operate. Set to the highest setting, this may also enable the broiler element. A timer may allow the oven to be turned on and off automatically at pre-set times. More sophisticated ovens may have complex, computer-based controls allowing a wide variety of operating modes and special features including the use of a temperature probe to automatically shut the oven off when the food is completely cooked to the desired degree.
Some ovens provide various aids to cleaning. Continuous cleaning ovens have the oven chamber coated with a catalytic surface that helps break down (oxidize) food splatters and spills over time. Self-cleaning ovens use pyrolytic decomposition (extreme heat) to oxidize dirt. Steam ovens may provide a wet-soak cycle to loosen dirt, allowing easier manual removal. In the absence of any special methods, chemical oven cleaners are sometimes used or just scrubbing.
Outside the culinary world, ovens are used for a number of purposes.
A furnace can be used either to provide heat to a building or used to melt substances such as glass or metal for further processing. A blast furnace is a particular type of furnace generally associated with metal smelting (particularly steel manufacture) using refined coke or similar hot-burning substance as a fuel, with air pumped in under pressure to increase the temperature of the fire. A blacksmith uses a temporarily blown furnace, the smith's heart to heat iron to a glowing red to yellow temperature.
A kiln is a high-temperature oven used in wood drying, ceramics and cement manufacturing to convert mineral feedstock (in the form of clay or calcium or aluminum rocks) into a glassier, more solid form. In the case of ceramic kilns, a shaped clay object is the final result, while cement kilns produce a substance called clinker that is crushed to make the final cement product. (Certain types of drying ovens used in food manufacture, especially those used in malting, are also referred to as kilns.)
An autoclave is an oven-like device with features similar to a pressure cooker that allows the heating of aqueous solutions to higher temperatures than water's boiling point in order to sterilize the contents of the autoclave.
Industrial ovens are similar to their culinary equivalents and are used for a number of different applications that do not require the high temperatures of a kiln or furnace.
^Dering, Phil (1999). "Earth-Oven Plant Processing in Archaic Period Economies: An Example from a Semi-Arid Savannah in South Central North America". American Antiquity. 64 (4): 659-674. doi:10.2307/2694211. JSTOR2694211.
Cook with the convenience of an oven on your countertop using the Oster Extra Large Digital Countertop Convection Oven. Perfect for the holidays when you need extra oven space or just for cooking dinner quickly on a weeknight, this large countertop convection oven uses convection technology to distribute heat evenly for thorough cooking and excellent results. The oven's generously sized interior offers enough space to accommodate two large take-and-bake pizzas, a family-sized chicken, a roast, or 18 slices of bread. Its two adjustable racks can be placed in two positions, allowing you to customize the space whether youâre cooking a tall roast or baking chocolate chip cookies. An energy-efficient alternative to turning on the full-size oven, this convection oven uses 50 percent less energy and offers digital settings, including bake, broil, toast, pizza, and defrost options, to take the guesswork out of cooking. A 90-minute timer with auto shut-off feature lets you know with a bell when your food is ready. The Oster Extra Large Digital Countertop Convection Oven includes a baking pan and an integrated broiling rack.
13 SMART COOKING FUNCTIONS WITH AIR FRY AND DEHYDRATE.
The Smart Oven Air with Element IQÂ® is for the cook who desires a countertop oven that can roast for large gatherings, air fry crispy French fries & family favorites and dehydrate a wide range of healthy foods. The super convection setting reduces cooking time by up to 30% with great crispness.
Cooking versatility at the touch of a button! The BLACK+DECKER 6-Slice Stainless Steel Convection Countertop Toaster Oven with Broiler Pan features one-touch functions for a whole range of foods: bagels, pizza, frozen snacks, potatoes, and cookies. Convection technology circulates air within the oven for fast and even results while baking. Plus, the toaster oven includes a broiler pan and an external crumb tray that slides in and out, making cleanup a breeze. When itâs time to eat, trust the #1 brand in toaster ovens**âBLACK+DECKER. Dual position rack place food right under the broiler or make room for large items. High and low oven rack positions provide the versatility to have great results on all foods. Nonstick interior cleanup is fast. Just wipe clean the cooled nonstick surfaces.
Cook with the convenience of an oven on your countertop with the Oster Large Digital Countertop Convection Toaster Oven. This digital toaster oven uses convection technology to distribute heat quickly and evenly for thorough cooking and excellent results. Perfect for large families, the convection toaster and oven provides a spacious interior that can accommodate a 12-inch pizza, a whole chicken, a casserole, or even a pan of crescent rolls or chocolate chip cookies. Convenient one-touch controls let you choose from six cooking functions, including bake, convection bake, broil, toast, pizza, defrost, and warm, to take the guesswork out of cooking. A 90-minute timer with auto shut-off feature lets know with a bell when your food is ready and turns off the oven when the cycle is complete. Two rack positions let you customize the space, while a see-through door allows you to check on food at a glance. This sleek, modern toaster oven also features an interior light and an easy-to-clean interior and comes with a removable crumb tray and a durable baking pan.
The smart oven Pro with element IQ is an essential tool for the cook who desires a countertop oven that bakes the perfect pizza pie, crispy yet chewy cookies, toasts evenly and roasts succulent meat. The convection setting reduces cooking time by up to 30%. with element IQ - 5 independent quartz heating elements move the power where it's needed most, above and below the food. Each element adjusts automatically for the setting you choose, to deliver the right cooking temperature at the right time ensuring the precise cooking process for the meal you are creating. Voltage -110 -120 volts , Power - 1800 watts.
The BLACK+DECKER 8-Slice Extra-Wide Stainless Steel/Black Convection Countertop Toaster and Pizza Oven with Broiler Pan simplifies large baking tasks. Its extended interior fits an entire 13âx9â pan with handles, so you can bake lasagna, brownies, and even 12â pizzas with your standard bakeware. You wonât have to wait around for your large oven to preheat anymore, just set the correct temperature and time and youâll be baking in minutes with four unique functions: bake, broil, toast, and keep warm. Convection technology circulates air within the oven for fast and even results while baking. Plus, the toaster oven includes a broiler pan and an external crumb tray that slides in and out, making cleanup a breeze. When itâs time to eat, trust the #1 brand in toaster ovens*âBLACK+DECKER.
Large enough for a 9â pizza or four slices of bread, the BLACK+DECKER 4-Slice Stainless Steel Toaster Oven with Broiler Pan complements any kitchen countertop. This compact, versatile toaster oven bakes, broils, toasts, and keeps food warm, at up to 450Â°F. It comes with a baking and broiler pan that fits perfectly into the small toaster oven interior. Plus, our exclusive EvenToast Technology optimizes heat distribution to toast bread evenly. When itâs time to eat, trust the #1 brand in toaster ovens*âBLACK+DECKER. Large viewing window keep an eye on food during cooking. The durable glass window gives you a clear view of food throughout the cooking process. Bake/broiler pan donât worry about finding pans to fit in the oven. The included baking/broiling pan fits perfectly, making it easy to insert and remove food. Toasting rack also included.
The Cuisinart AirFryer Toaster Oven is a premium full-size toaster oven with a built-in airfryer. It will not only bake a 4 lb. chicken or 12 in. pizza, broil salmon steaks, and toast 6 bagel halves at once, it can also airfry up to 3 lbs. of food using little or no oil. Powerful ultra-hot air âfriesâ favorites like wings, chicken tenders, and fish and chips to crisp, golden-brown doneness. And since a toaster oven stays on the countertop, this is a fryer that never has to be put away. Enjoy the crunchy texture and tastes you love — no deep fryer required. The AirFryer Toaster Oven, only from Cuisinart!
Every Breville product begins with a simple moment of brilliance. The Breville Smart Oven began with the simple fact that different foods require different methods of heating: some, like baked goods, need to be cooked evenly; others, like meats, need to be seared on top. Most toaster ovens fail to distribute heat in a consistent way throughout their interiors, let alone change heat distribution to suit the different foods being prepared. This is how the Breville Smart Oven stands apart: whatever the food, it adjusts its heat distribution for perfect results.
For toast, high heat from top and bottom evenly crisps the outside of toast but doesn't dry out the inside (left diagram), while for baking 1500W are distributed among four elements for gentle heat and even cooking (right diagram)
An oven that does the thinking for you
The Smart Oven is equipped with Element IQ cooking technology, which adjusts the power of the five individual quartz heating elements to cook food more evenly and quickly. This sophisticated heating system distributes heat throughout the oven when and where it is needed, to guarantee more efficient cooking. Nine different menu options allow users to choose the best setting for the food they are cooking. In addition to dynamically distributing heat to different areas, the Smart Oven can adjust the wattage of its heating elements for even more cooking flexibility. Most ovens have elements with fixed wattage that can only switch between ON and OFF, but Element IQ functions much like a dimmer on a light switch, increasing or decreasing element power with a simple turn of the knob.
The Breville Smart Oven comes with 3 acccessories: a pizza pan, baking pan, and broil rack.
For example, broiling requires high heat from above in order to melt and brown, so the Smart Oven activates 1500W of high heat from the top elements of the oven. On the other hand, toast needs to be cooked evenly on both sides without drying out the inside, so the Smart Oven uses high radiated heat from above and below (1800W distributed between four elements) to crisp the outside quickly.
Baking utilizes another feature of the Smart Oven that contributes to even heating: convection heating. Convection cooking uses a fan to circulate hot air so all sides of the food cook at the same rate. This is particularly important for baked goods, such as cookies and cakes, which need to be cooked evenly all the way through.
Each of these nine functions is preset with recommended settings, taking the guesswork out of cooking. However, each can be customized according to recipe, volume of food, or personal taste. Customized settings will remain in the memory of the oven until changed or until the oven is unplugged from the wall outlet, streamlining your cooking process.
Designed with the consumer in mind
The Smart Oven is carefully constructed from the most durable materials. It is attractively housed in reinforced stainless steel, a striking addition to any kitchen. The elements themselves are composed of quartz, rather than the metal elements found in other toaster ovens. Quartz responds more quickly to heat change, which results in more even heating throughout the oven. The roomy interior is coated with a non-stick material that can safely withstand high temperatures, making cleanup easier. A crumb/drip tray that is accessible from the front of the oven (rather than the back, like many other toaster ovens) also makes it easier to clean between cooking sessions. In addition, the oven includes a patented magnetic auto-eject rack: small magnets embedded on the sides of the oven door pull the wire rack halfway from the oven when the door is opened, making food easier to remove and preventing burns.
At 18.5 x16.25 x11.25 inches, the Breville Smart Oven is not too small but not too large. It is larger than most toaster ovens, with space to comfortably fit six slices of toast, a 13-inch pizza, or a whole chicken. However, as a countertop convection oven, it is more space-efficient than a conventional wall oven. A smaller oven means less time to heat up and less time to cook, perfect for preparing a meal in a hurry (or for cooks who like to create in the heat of the moment). This also translates into a cooler kitchen (particularly convenient in the hot summer months) and less energy consumed.
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Easy-clean, stainless steel housing with ribbed plate warming tray
Non-Stick Interior with 3 rack positions
13â pizza, 6-slice toast capacity
Tempered glass door
Magnetic auto-eject rack
5 quartz elements with Element IQ for smart cooking
Back-lit easy-read LCD that calculates the correct the time and temperature, illuminating orange during preheating and cooking and blue once the cycle is complete
Function dial with 9 pre-set cooking functions: bake, broil, roast, cookies, reheat, pizza, bagel, toast, warm
Temperature and time dial with auto shut-off and sound alert
Prepare tender turkey, slow-cooked stews, and more with the 22-Quart Oster Roaster Oven. Equipped with a self-basting lid that continually recirculates moisture, this electric oven eliminates the need for hand-basting to help save you time and energy. The high-domed lid accommodates turkeys up to 26 pounds. With its adjustable temperature dial, this versatile electric oven allows you to roast, slow cook, or bake a wide variety of dishes. The convenient 'Keep Warm' setting keeps food at an ideal serving temperature. A removable enamel-on-steel pan and rack make this electric roaster easy to clean, and the stainless steel exterior attractively complements a variety of decors.