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Flag of the Second Spanish Republic
Revisionism is a term which emerged in the late 1990s and is applied to a group of historiographic theories related to the recent history of Spain. They are supposedly held together by posing a challenge to what is presented as a generally accepted, orthodox view on the history of the Second Republic and the Civil War. The term is used as stigmatization or abuse, and in usage it is paired with charges of incompetence at best or ill will at worst. Historians named revisionists reject the label and claim that no orthodox, canonical view of the recent past exists. Both groups blame each other for pursuing a hidden political agenda; those dubbed revisionists are branded conservatives or post-Francoists, their opponents are branded progressists and left-wingers.
Until the late 1990s in Spain the term "revisionismo histórico" was applied to various historiographic debates abroad, often though not always related to Nazism. It was seldom used against the local background and its denotation could have varied, e.g. in 1988 the expression was employed to stand for ideology-driven, zealous, Manichean and militant anti-Francoist historiography. According to scholars who later confronted perceived revisionism, this general setting changed in the mid-1990s; the new government of José María Aznar allegedly launched a bid to revise the dominant historiographic view of the recent past. In administrative terms the scheme was reportedly embodied e.g. in Plan de Mejora de la Enseñanza, a scheme aimed at re-design of the school curriculum, in 1997 proposed to the Cortes and eventually rejected. In parallel the Right-wing administration allegedly mounted a public-discourse counter-offensive, which climaxed in "Operación Moa". Its supposed result was commercial success of 3 books which appeared on the market between 1999 and 2003; written by an amateur historian Pio Moa, they focused on the Second Republic and the Civil War.
Moa's books triggered adverse response. It was first embodied in a 1999 manifesto titled Combate por la historia; signed by historians, writers and public figures, it was the first to apply the term "revisionistas" to a group of unnamed Spanish historians, charged with distortions and falsifications. In the early 21st century the name filtered into newspapers and the phenomenon became a widely discussed topic, especially that also other books charged with revisionism were selling very well. According to some scholars, the second term of the Aznar government reinforced the revisionist efforts, expressed e.g. as another education plan advanced by Real Academia de Historia. The anti-revisionist backlash climaxed in 2005-2006 as 3 books produced by professional historians and edited by Alberto Reig Tapia and Francisco Espinosa Maestre; the volumes supposedly definitely dismantled the revisionist Moa narrative and at the time they were thought to have terminated the debate.
Instead of dying out, after 2005 the debate on revisionism flamed on and was brought to another level. To some extent sustained by adoption of Ley de la Memoria Historica in 2007, the discussion transformed when a group of professional historians challenged the anti-revisionists; from that moment onwards the conflict was no longer between amateurs and scholars, but between the scholars themselves. It reached another milestone in 2010-2011, the years when Manuel Álvarez Tardío and Roberto Villa García published a general work on the Second Republic and when RAH-edited Diccionario Biográfico Español published a biography of Francisco Franco. The latter caused heated controversy mostly in popular discourse; according to many, the biography was revisionist and scandalous. The former had a low-profile but more lasting effect, and became a negative point of reference for many works confronting perceived revisionist historiography. The discussion on revisionism kept escalating and assumed increasingly militant tone. The next milestone was reached when in 2014 Stanley G. Payne published his biography of Franco (co-authored by Jesús Palacios Tapias); at that point some concluded that revisionism was embraced by the world's most distinguished Hispanists. Since then the debate has reached an unprecedented level and spilled over to global historiography.
Some scholars who confront the perceived revisionist tide claim that the term "revisionism" as such is not by default deprecatory and some authors considered champions of anti-revisionism declare themselves revisionists, naming skepticism a recommended historiographic approach. They note that authors who strive to re-write history of Spain of the 20th century do not actually deserve the name of "revisionist" and should rather be called manipulators and liars; they are dubbed "self-proclaimed revisionists". Others reserve the term for intellectuals like de Felice, Nolte, Lachmann or Furet and underline that the likes of Moa or Vidal are nowhere near their stature. There are authors who agree that the name has been abused and label their opponents rather as "pseudo-revisionists". Finally, some scholars distinguish between "revisionism", the term reserved for amateurish writings of Moa or others, and "neo-revisionism", the term applied to scientifically grounded works pursuing similar yet not identical views. Finally, few authors note that historiographic revision is generally welcome and needed, but "revisionism" by default stands for revision based on manipulation and has no place in the academic realm.
Most authors who rebuke attempts to distort and falsify history do not go into such detail and refer to "revisionismo histórico" and "revisionistas". The name is supposed to denote an attempt to revise a generally accepted, proven scientific version of recent Spanish history and is applied to both "historiadores coyunturales" and "historiadores profesionales"; recently the term is applied not only to professionals in historiographic science but also to scholars who until their alleged "enigmatic evolution" had been global icons of scientific Hispanism. Sometimes in such cases the term is qualified as perfectly respectable scientific "revisionismo amable", yet usually no such distinction is made. At times revisionism is divided into purist and comparative branches. Sometimes two labels associated are "denialism" and "negationism", as supposedly the authors in question deny or negate generally accepted and supposedly proven historiographic concepts.
Though authors classified as revisionists are typically charged with nurturing post-Francoist, pro-Francoist, neo-Francoist, quasi-Francoist or plainly Francoist sentiments, some effort is made to distinguish between "Francoist historiography" and "revisionist historiography". The former is deemed actually orthodox in its Francoist set of old-style schemes and traits, immune to discourse, straight continuation of pre-1975 narrative and represented by authors of older generation like Ricardo de la Cierva, Vicente Palacio Atard and Fernando Vizcaíno Casas. The latter is deemed to be a confrontational response to historiographic vision generally agreed after 1975. It is at times pictured as a school represented by a new generation of authors often armed with modern scientific tools, some of these authors skilled if not excelling - this is, until they embraced revisionism - in historiographic craft. It is only recently that in course of increasingly heated debate less and less attention is paid to tell Francoist historians from revisionist historians. Both groups might be bundled together, many threads and motives are supposed to prove continuity of their historiographic vision, and revisionism is painted as "almost 'Blue'". Some critics of revisionism go even further and claim that it is actually an orthodox Francoist reading of history.
There are some 10-15 books which come up repeatedly as negative points of reference of the anti-revisionist discourse, though further volumes might be referred less frequently or even occasionally. They roughly fall into two different categories. One is composed of loose essays, formatted for non-specialized reader and deprived of back matter, which usually forms part of scientitic apparatus; this is the case of volumes published by Moa, Vidal, Martín Rubio or others. Another one is composed of fully fledged historiographic studies aimed for more experienced if not professional audience; this is the case of books published by Álvarez Tardío, Villa García, del Rey Reguillo or others. Works from both categories most frequently charged with revisionism are listed below, precedence given to volumes which stand most prominently as alleged key vehicles of revisionist narrative.
Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, Luis Eugenio Togores Sánchez (eds.), La República y la Guerra Civil setenta años después, Madrid 2008, ISBN9788497390705
Enrique Sacanell, El general Sanjurjo, héroe y victima. El militar que pudo evitar la dictadura franquista, Madrid 2004, ISBN9788497342056
Charge: re-fried Francoist fables
allegory of the Republic
The debate is centred on the Second Republic and to some extent on the Civil War, though occasionally also Restoration period or Francoism might come under scrutiny. A thesis initially advanced by anti-revisionist scholars was that after 1975 "mayoritario sector" of Spanish historiography agreed a propaganda-free opinion on the Republic and that in post-Francoist Spain there was no ideologically-motivated "war of historians"; revisionists were marked as these who tried to open such a war. Recently this position has changed and some anti-revisionists admit that indeed there might be some "areas of contention" and controversies, embodied in a debate between these who denounce "false orthodox canon" and these who denounce "revisionism". However, many authors keep flagging revisionism as a social rather than historiographic phenomenon.
Alleged revisionists are supposedly consumed by desire to defame the Republic; their key thesis allegedly advanced is that the Civil War was caused by the Left. This underlying bottom message is reportedly sustained by a number of more detailed concepts. One critic listed them in an ironic "decalogue of the revisionist": 1) pretend scientific neutrality; 2) disregard "structural history"; 3) try to demythologize the Republic; 4) present the Republic as exclusion; 5) blame the Left for radical revolutionism; 6) deny CEDA's role of a FascistTrojan horse; 7) claim that Bienio negro was not so black; 8) underline that violence was equal on both sides; 9) criticize memoria historica as having nothing to do with history; 10) glorify the transition, made possible by Francoism.
Historians called revisionists are typically refused scientific credentials, denied both to relatively young scholars and to academic Hispanists who established their position during decades. Some are presented as interested in selling books rather than in historical rigor. The charge raised most frequently is that instead of establishing the truth their aim is to dismantle "liberal-left myths". Since they are not honest they do not qualify as scientists, even though they very much pretend so and constantly raise claims to a myth of scientific "objectivity" and "impartiality", qualities which they are also denied. The revisionists reportedly lack "modus operandi propiamente historiográfico", fail "to provide a balanced assessment", demonstrate bias, distort history, resort to "pseudo-scientific" methods, manipulation and deliberate falsification, create new myths, tend to be hysterical and cultivate their own "pedagogics of hate". An index of manipulative techniques, allegedly employed by the revisionists, contains 5 key methods: 1) use of logical fallacies; 2) relativisation, reductionism and negationism; 3) mystification; 4) psychologization and 5) mythologization.
rally of Falange in contemporary Spain
The scholars dubbed revisionists are "in the service of the political aims of the present", their goal identified as to "whitewash the history of the Spanish right" and to cover up Nationalist crimes. They are linked to a range of political options and might be dubbed "historiographic Right", "conservatives", "neo-Conservatives", "theo-conservatives", "ultraconservatives", "conservative/neo-Francoist", "pro-Francoists", "filofranquistas", "regime's panegyrists and ideologized 'historians'", "Francoist apologists" and "authoritarians". They are charged with exalting "pure Francoism", sustaining "canon neofranquista", "peddling discredited historical narrative", "repackaging the legends of Francoist 'historiography'", serving "re-fried Francoist fables", "almost 'Blue'" myths and even nurturing "filonazismo". The charges are supposed proven by political membership of some historians, their publications in right-wing periodicals or publishing houses, links to right-wing institutions, their set of ,,ideological bedmates" or who they dined with. Authoritarian sentiments might be suggested also by other associations, e.g. in case of Payne it was noted he is based in Wisconsin, the home state of senator McCarthy. At times their presence in public discourse is cast against the background of Holocaust denial and revisionism being punishable by law in countries like Germany.
Key conflicting theories
thesis presented as:
Second Republic was a standard parliamentary democratic regime of the time
Second Republic was tilted towards the Left, exclusive, and its democratic character was seriously flawed
Republic was from the onset threatened principally by Right-wing conspiracy
during its lifetime Republic was assaulted by the Right and by the Left
PSOE was one of major constitutional forces of the Republic
PSOE viewed the Republic as a transitory regime, to be followed by some sort of popular democracy
CEDA was an authoritarian party bent on toppling the Republic
CEDA in principle remained loyal to the Republican regime
republican politicians like Azaña by their moderate attitude contributed to stability of the regime
republican politicians like Azaña by their sectarian attitude contributed to deterioration of the regime
radicalisation of politics during the Republic was caused principally by the Right-wing refusal to recognize the regime
radicalisation of politics during the Republic was caused principally by the Left-wing claim to ownership of the regime
Authors referred to as revisionists do not adopt a uniform stand. Some implicitly accept the label since they openly format their works as challenge to alleged "myths", reportedly prevailing in historiography. Some joined the anti-revisionist campaign and turned from iconic revisionists to iconic anti-revisionists. Some ignore the term and do not take part in direct polemics. Some assumed a combative position and in numerous articles, press statements and books they confront their opponents. There are authors dubbed revisionists who deny having anything in common with other "revisionists" and treat them in a derogatory manner, there are authors who admit sharing similar views. In general, they question existence of an orthodox, generally accepted historiographic vision of the Republic and claim that historiography is about debate and plurality of opinions. On this basis they maintain that no such thing as revisionism exists, that the term is artificial construction which bundles together various scholars and opinions, and that by means of similar arbitrary judgments even icons of anti-revisionism like Preston might be counted in. A somewhat sympathetic term alternative to "revisionism" is "Moaist revolution".
There is no name commonly applied to scholars who criticize supposed revisionism, though some coined the term "contrarrevisionismo". They are at times referred to as "pequeño grupo de historiadores" who intend to monopolize the discourse by means of social, political and infrastructural network they had built. To this end, they allegedly attempt to stigmatize all these who do not comply as pseudo-scientists, busy with dirty political agenda and not deserving a place in academic discourse. The anti-revisionist authors are presented as driven by their own prejudice, ideologically motivated, "politically committed" and named "small group of historians determined to defend at all costs the vision of a sacred and 'heroic' republican democracy". Their supposed political sympathies are clearly described as Left-wing, with references to "historiografía 'progresista'", "nueva [progressist] religión civil", "anti-Fascist historiography", "political correctness", "post-Marxist ideology", "militant history" and "anti-Francoist, progressive historians". Their principal objective is described as further mythologization of the Republic; this stand is ironically referred by remarks that "Republic was not a Little Red Riding Hood".
ridiculing counter-revisionists: the Right and the Spanish Republic?
Some scholars dubbed revisionists take charges of their supposed Francoist sympathies very seriously. They demand from periodicals which published such opinions the right to reply and require individuals advancing such claims to retract them; these demands usually produce no result except claims that by "threatening quasi-legal language" they intend to administratively limit free speech. They also claim having never endorsed the regime and diagnose that though there might have been a modest post-Francoist revival in some sectors of the Spanish media, all professional historians remained immune. They reverse the charges and maintain that it is rather the "contrarrevisionistas" who demonstrate a Francoist heritage: unable of detaching science from politics, they reportedly view history in Manichean terms, refuse to acknowledge more advanced analysis, and got locked in a schematic bi-polar logic. These dubbed revisionists attempt to reverse also other charges directed at them and similarly denounce their opponents in terms who they dine with and where they publish, e.g. by noting that one of the most militant anti-revisionists is related to a Trotskyite periodical. They ridicule the pose of moral superiority, reportedly assumed by those lambasting revisionism, and agonize about their alleged "personal smears".
^ Carlos Seco, Un análisis objetivo del régimen de Franco, [in:] El País 23.07.88, available here
^ Giovanni C. Cattini, Historical revisionism. The reinterpretation of history in contemporary political debate, [in:] Transfer 06 (2011), p. 32, and many other similar claims made by other authors. Also historians who try to stay neutral in the revisionist-antirevisionist debate and strive to take equidistant position versus both camps adhere to the view that Aznar's government intended to impose a right-wing historiographical perspective, see e.g. Antonio Cazorla-Sanchez, Memory and Cultural History of the Spanish Civil War, Boston 2014, ISBN9789004259966, pp. 31, 38.
^ other initiative supposed to derail public discourse was setting up FAES, Fabian Altemöller, Die spanische extreme Rechte zwischen Metapolitik und Politik: Eine Analyse der Situierung der Nueva Derecha und der Adaption der Nouvelle Droite, Berlin 2017, ISBN 9783643137579212, p. 212, Xosé-Manoel Núñez Seixas, Andreas Stucki, Neueste Entwicklungen und Tendenzen der postdiktatorischen Geschichtskultur in Spanien, [in:] Stefan Troebst, Susan Baumgartl (eds.), Postdiktatorische Geschichtskulturen im Süden und Osten Europas, Göttingen 2010, ISBN9783835306370, p. 216, Xosé-Manoel Núñez, Ein endloser Erinnerungskrieg? Bürgerkrieg, Diktatur und Erinnerungsdiskurs in der jüngsten spanischen Geschichtswissenschaft, [in:] Neue Politische Literatur 55 (2010), p. 40
^full name Plan de Mejora de la Enseñanza de las Humanidades en el Sistema Educativo Español
^apart from FAES, its alleged vehicles were the radio broadcat station COPE, electronic bulletin Libertad Digital and privately held popular dailies ABC and El Mundo, Sebastian Balfour, El revisionismo histórico y la Guerra Civil, [in:] Pasajes: Revista de pensamiento contemporáneo 19 (2006), p. 61
^ Eduardo González Calleja, La historiografía sobre la violencia política en la Segunda República española: una reconsideración, [in:] Hispania Nova 11 (2013), p. 26
^ the most popular of them, Los mitos de la guerra civil, sold at least in 300,000 copies in Spain, see here. The result was typical for best-selling novels rather than for historiographic works, the latter sold at best in tens of thousands of copies. Mitos was also translated into a number of foreign languages and re-published in 2004, 2005, 2006, 2014 and 2018
^ titled Los orígenes de la guerra civil española (1999), Los personajes de la República vistos por ellos mismos (2000) and especially Los mitos de la guerra civil (2003)
^ see Combate por la historia, [in:] nodo50 service, available here
^e.g. Paracuellos-Katyn of Cesar Vidal sold at least in 45,000 copies, Manuel Muñoz Navarrete, Revisando a los revisionistas, Dublin 2009, p. 4. Authors of books considered revisionist and published before 2010 were mostly non-professional historians, like Cesar Alcala, Federico Jimenez Losantos, José Javier Esparza or Jose María Zavala
^"coincidiendo con la segunda legislatura del Partido Popular (2000-2004) y en sintonía con el poder político se produjo un embate revisionista", Francisco Espinosa Maestre, El fenómeno revisionista o los fantasmas de la derecha española, Badajoz 2005, ISBN9788488956682, cover page
^ Cattini 2011, p. 33, Antonio Bernat Montesinos, Estrategias de revisionismo histórico y pedagogía del odio, [in:] Annuario de Pedagogía 9 (2007), p. 77
^ Francisco Espinosa Maestre, El fenómeno revisionista o los fantasmas de la derecha española (2005), Alberto Reig Tapia, Anti-Moa (2006), Alberto Reig Tapia, Revisionismo y política. Pío Moa revisitado (2008)
^ Edward Malefakis, La Segunda República y el revisionismo, [in:] El País 12.01.11, available here
^ Enrique Moradiellos, Revisión histórica crítica y pseudo-revisionismo político presntista: el caso de la Guerra Civil Española, Badajoz 2011, p. 13. The law triggered another historiographic protest manifesto, titled Manifiesto por la Verdad Histórica and signed among others by Federico Jiménez, César Vidal, José María Marco, Pedro Schwartz, Ricardo de la Cierva and Jesús Palacios, Montesinos 2007, p. 55
^"aparte de Stanley Payne, no les respaldó ningún historiador profesional importante", Malefakis 2011
^ some scholars claim that publication of the allegedly scandalous biogram exposed "the limits of post-Francoist democratization", Chris Ealham, The Emperor's New Clothes: 'Objectivity' and Revisionism in Spanish History, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 48/1 (2012), p. 192
^especially the 2012 volume En el combate por la historia, edited by Angel Viñas, see Ealham 2012, pp. 193-194, Peter Anderson, Knowing and Acknowledging Spain's Dark Civil War Past, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 52/1 (2017), p. 135
^the debate on revisionism was taken up mostly by British and American scholars, compare contributions of Peter Anderson, Sebastian Balfour, Gerard Blaney Jr., Cathie Carmichael, Chris Ealham, Helen Graham, Stanley G. Payne, Paul Preston, Tim Rees, Michael Richards, Richard A. Robinson, Michael Seidman, Robert Stradling, Maria Thomas and Nigel Townson and see e.g. sections in Journal of Contemporary History or European History Quarterly in issues from 2006 to 2017. Beyond the English-speaking world the topic is barely present though noticed, see especially Fabian Altemöller, Die spanische extreme Rechte zwischen Metapolitik und Politik, Berlin 2017, ISBN9783643137579, and Gabriele Ranzato, Il passato di bronzo: L'eredità della guerra civile nella Spagna democratica, Bari 2014, ISBN9788858118627
^ Ricardo Robledo, Historia científica vs. historia de combate en la antesala de la Guerra Civil, [in:] Studia historica. Historia contemporánea 32 (2014), p. 77
^Alvaro Morales, Paul Preston: "Los historiadores serios siempre estamos haciendo revisionismo", [in:] El Día 12.10.06, available here
^ the reported difference is that neo-revisionism does not advance catastrophist perspective, and that it falls into 2 streams: "purist" (which assaults the Republic altogether) and "comparative" (which denigrates tge Republic by comparing its miserable output with results of the peaceful transition of the 1970s, Malefakis 2011
^one anti-revisionist scholar examines the life and work of Stanley G. Payne to verify whether his "prestige was matched with an exemplary professional praxis" and concluded that it was not, see Francisco J. Rodriguez Jiménez, Stanley G. Payne, ¿Una trayectoria academica ejamplar? [in:] Angel Viñas (ed.), Sin respeto por la historia [extraordinary issue of Hispania Nova], 2015, pp. 183-210
^"el revisionismo prosperó ... hasta 2006, cuando sus argumentos principales quedaron desacreditados" by literature commemorating 70th anniversary of the war and 75h anniversary of proclamation of the Republic, Malefakis 2011, see also González Calleja 2013, p. 27
^ see Chris Ealham, "Myths" and the Spanish Civil War: Some Old, Some Exploded, Some Clearly Borrowed and Some Almost "Blue", [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 42/2 (2007), pp. 365-376. The blue color is supposed to indicate Francoist leaning, as the Francoist Falange sported blue shirts
^ Carmen González Martínez, 'El pasado no está muerto ni es pasado': historiografiá de la Guerra Civil y revisionismo en el año de la memoria histórica, [in:] Gonzalo Capellán de Miguel, Julio Pérez Serrano (eds.), Sociedad de masas, medios de comunicación y opinión pública, Madrid 2008, vol. 1, ISBN9788496637498, p. 59, Bernat 2007, p. 55, Rodrigo 2004, p. 185, Sevillano 2007, p. 183
^ Ealham 2012, p. 191, Pierce 2011, p. 176-178, Robledo 2014, p. 77, Robledo 2015, p. 9, Sánchez Pérez 2015, p. 90, Luis Carlos Navarro Pérez, El largo Carnaval de 1936 en un pueblo del Sur. Una reflexión sobre las causas de la violencia, [in:] Rafael Quirosa-Cheyrouze Muñoz, Mónica Fernández Amador (eds.), Miradas al pasado reciente: de la II República a la Transición, Almeria 2014, ISBN9788416027736, p. 103. For a review which agrees that according to the authors the Republic was not "democracia auténticamente liberal y plural" yet which hails the authors for their rigorous work see e.g. Julio de la Cueva Merino, Reseña: El precio de la exclusión, [in:] Historia Contemporánea 44 (2012), pp. 371-374
^ Viñas 2017, p. 124, Angel Viñas (ed.), Sin respeto por la historia [extraordinary issue of Hispania Nova] 2015,
^ Robledo 2014, p. 77, Robledo 2015, p. 11, Navarro Pérez 2014, p. 103, José Luis Ledesma, Franco y las violencias de la guerra civil, [in:] Angel Viñas, Sin respeto por la historia [extraordinary issue of Hispania Nova] 2015, p. 160, Chris Ealham, La historia social, el (neo-) revisionismo y el mapa de la izquierda española de los años 30, [in:] Historia Social 86 (2016), p. 142
^ Ealham 2012, p. 191, Quiroga 2013, p. 519-522, Gonzalez Calleja 2013, p. 16, Robledo 2014, p. 77, Robledo 2015, p. 9, Ledesma 2015, p. 160
^ Gonzalez Calleja 2013, p. 15, Robledo 2015, p. 11, Ledesma 2015, p. 160
^ Bernat 2007, p. 61, Sevillano 2007, p. 185, Muñoz Navarrete 2009, pp. 6, 28-30, Xosé-Manoel Núñez Seixas, Andreas Stucki, Neueste Entwicklungen und Tendenzen der postdiktatorischen Geschichtskultur in Spanien, [in:] Stefan Troebst, Susan Baumgartl (eds.), Postdiktatorische Geschichtskulturen im Süden und Osten Europas, Göttingen 2010, ISBN9783835306370, p. 217
^ González Martínez 2008, p. 59, Xosé-Manoel Núñez, Ein endloser Erinnerungskrieg? Bürgerkrieg, Diktatur und Erinnerungsdiskurs in der jüngsten spanischen Geschichtswissenschaft, [in:] Neue Politische Literatur 55 (2010), p. 41
^ Robledo 2015, p. 5, Gonzalez Calleja 2013, p. 21, Riesco Roche 2015, pp. 118, 123
^ González Martínez 2008, p. 59, Ealham 2007, pp. 365-370, Robledo 2015, p. 11, Ealham 2015, p. 137
^the book was published in 2017 and still awaits reviews in major periodicals. For a charge of revisionism in electronic realm see e.g. Angel Luis López Villaverde, Lo que la 'verdad' esconde. A propósito de fraudes y violencias en 1936, [in:] Contexto y Acción 115 (2017), available here
^"consenso que existía", Ricardo Robledo, El giro ideológico en la historia contemporánea española: "Tanto o más culpables fueron las izquierdas", [in:] Carlos Forcadell, Ignacio Peiró, Mercedes Yusta (eds.), El pasado en construcción. Revisionismos históricos en la historiografía contemporánea, Zaragoza, 2015, ISBN9788499113364, p. 304
^ which allegedly renders the Spanish historiographic debate different from the German one, compared to ideologically-driven "war of historians", Julian Casanova, Republic, Civil War and Dictatorships: The Peculiarities of Spanish History, [in:] Journal of Contemporay History 52/1 (2017), p. 149
^ one scholars lists 5 "areas of contention": explanation for the failure of the Second Republic, 2) responsibilities for the Civil War, 3) reasons for Franco's victory, 4) nature and size of repression during the war and afterwards, 5) Franco's role in modernization of Spain, Angel Viñas, On the 80th Anniversary of the Spanish Civil War. [in:] Journal of Contemporay History 52/1 (2017), p. 123
^ Francisco Sevillano Calero, El revisionismo historiográfico sobre el pasado reciente en España, [in:] Pasado y Memoria 6 (2007), p. 189
^ the reasons supposedly resposible for emergence of revisionism in Spain are 1) use of the past for political militancy of the left, 2) generational change, 3) new international background, especially the fall of communism,, 4) idealisation of the Republic; 5) partial militancy of Movimiento para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica, Moradiellos 2009, pp. 17-25
^ they are at best admitted to cultivate "self-proclaimed 'science'" Robledo 2014, p. 76
^ Stanley G. Payne, who has been contributing to historiography on contemporary Spain for 5 decades, is ridiculed that "the reader may wonder whether they [Payne and authors of recommended latest studies] even refer to the same country", Viñas 2017, p. 123. Also a veteran French Hispanist Bartolomé Bennassar found himself under fire for revisionist flavor of his recent work, "a veces bastante 'revisionista'",Jean-Marc Delaunay, Miradas francesas sobre la Guerra Civil, [in:] Studia Histórica. Historia contemporánea 32 (2014), p. 440, similar hints in Gonzalez Calleja 2013, p. 11
^ Roberto Villa García, The Second Republic: Myths and Realities, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 51/2 (2016), p. 421
^ Manuel Álvarez Tardío, ¿Para cuando un debate histórico sin prejuicios? A propósito de la reseña de Samuel Pierce sobre El Precio de la Exclusión. La política durante la Segunda República, [in:] Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies 36/1 (2011), p. 156
^they are referred to as "historians" in quotation marks, Ealham 2007, p. 366
^"pretendiamente objetivas y equilibradas" but in fact "escribiendo el libro negro de la República", Robledo 2015, p. 2
^"objective" history is ridiculed as a "nineteenth-century belief", made outdated by "hermeneutics, epistemology and their implications for historiography", Chris Ealham, "Cry babies" or authoritarians? An investigation into the inability of Spain's historical revisionists to accept criticism [working paper in progress], p. 1, available here
^ Samuel Pierce, Review: Manuel Álvarez Tardío and Roberto Villa García, El precio de la exclusión: la política durante la Segunda República, [in:] Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies 35/1 (2011), p. 178
^ Gary Raymond, The Spanish Holocaust by Paul Preston, [in:] Wales Arts Review 2012, available here
^ the intention to cover up Nationalist crimes is allegedlt posed as attempt not to "re-open the wounds", Robledo 2015, p. 2; the same declaration is held tantamount to refusal to investigate, incompatible with historian's craft, Anderson 2017, p. 130, Maria Thomas, Political Violence in the Republican Zone of Spain during the Spanish Civil War: Evolving Historiographical Perspectives, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 52/1 (2017), p. 147
^ Javier Rodrigo, Los mitos de la derecha historiográflca. Sobre la memoria de la guerra civil y el revisionismo a la española, [in:] Historia del presente 3 (2004), p. 185
^the charge of nurturing "filonazismo" is perhaps the most far-reaching one presented in the scholarly realm (anonymous cyberspace excluding). It was put forward by Xosé Manoel Núñez Seixas, Los vencedores vencidos: la peculiar memoria de la Dvisión Azul, 1945-2005, [in:] Pasado y memoria: Revista de historia contemporánea 4 (2005), p. 96. Perhaps to avoid legal action, the charge was addressed to an unnamed group of "young historians"
^ revisionists are even more damnded as the parties they engage have reportedly never condemned Francoism, Robledo 2014, p. 80
^ Robledo 2015, p. 5, Ealham 2012, p. 198, Robledo 2014, p. 79
^ for FAES see Robledo 2015, p. 2, Robledo 2014, p. 79, for RAH as "thoroughly undemocratic" institution "unrepresentative of spanish historical profession", see Ealham 2012, p. 192
^ Chris Ealham, The Emperor's New Clothes: 'Objectivity' and Revisionism in Spanish History, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 48/1 (2013), p. 192
^ see e.g. commenta on Payne dining with Moa, Robledo 2015, p. 6
^Sebastian Balfour, The concept of historical revisionism: Spain since the 1930s, [in:] International Journal of Iberian Studies 21/3 (2008), pp. 179-18
^ Sevillano Calero 2007, p. 187, Richard J. Evans, Debate - Public Memory, Political Violence and the Spanish Civil War, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 52/1 (2017), p. 118. While scholarly periodicals maintain some restraint, in some popular media a thesis that the Spanish revisionists are Holocaust-deniers is advanced almost openly, compare ",,perpetran en España algunos historiadores de mentira que de un tiempo a esta parte publican con éxito versiones actualizadas de los infundios de la propaganda franquista; o lo de quienes, digamos, aseguran que Auschwitz fue en realidad un balneario con fines benéficos", Javier Cercas, Revisar la revision, [in:] El País 31.05.07
^ Robledo 2015, p. 6, Ealham 2007, p. 367, Ealham 2012, p. 195, Robledo 2014, p. 92, Blaney 2017, p. 418, Viñas 2017, pp. 123-124
^ González Calleja 2013, p. 35, Robledo 2014, p. 93, Sevillano Calero 2007, p. 186, Viñas 2017, pp. 123-124
^ Robledo 2014, pp. 92-3, Blaney 2017, p. 413, Alvarez Tardio 2016, p. 426
^ Robledo 2015, p. 3, Ealham 2007, p. 369, González Cuevas 2008, Viñas 2017, pp. 123-124
^,,In contrast, the repression in the Republican zone was hot-blooded and reactive", Spanish Holocaust xii-xiii, same opinion in Cathie Carmichael, The Need to Record the Past, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 51/2 (2016), p. 438, Anderson 2017, p. 134, Julián Casanova, Santos Juliá Díaz (ed.), Victimas de la guerra civil, Madrid 1999, p. 132, Javier Tusell, Historia de España en el siglo XX, vol. II, Madrid 1998, ISBN9788430606306
^ "todos fueron culpables", González Calleja 2013, p. 35, Anderson 2017, p. 134, Thomas 2017, p. 145
^for a review from allegedly "revisionist" perspective see Julius Ruiz, Seventy Years On: Historians and Repression During and After the Spanish Civil War, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 44/3 (2009), pp. 449-472
^both schools discussed briefly in Glicerio Sánchez Recio, En torno a la dictadura franquista, [in:] Angel Viñas (ed.), Sin respeto por la historia [extraordinary issue of Hispania Nova], 2015, p. 244
^thesis attributed in particular to Payne, who in turn is deemed influenced by Burnett Bolloten, compare e.g. Ángel Viñas, Cómo dar gato por liebre a base de banalidades, [in:] Angel Viñas (ed.), Sin respeto por la historia [extraordinary issue of Hispania Nova], 2015, p. 16, Rodríguez Jiménez 2015, p. 34
^ Roberto Villa García, The Second Republic: Myths and Realities, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 51/2 (2016), p. 422
^ the case of Edward Malefakis, initially charged with revisionism. Before death he vehemently condemned "franquismo-moaismo"
^the case of Stanley G. Payne. Though he has been charged with revisionism at least since 2007, he has been steering clear of revisionism-related debates. He has not resigned from scientific council of Journal of Contemporary History, the periodical which a number of times published contributions which deny him scientific credentials and allude to his alleged Francoist sympathies. His only voice on revisionism identified is that "para los historiadores de izquierda del siglo XXI hay una verdad inamovible, que no se puede cambiar y nadie puede cuestionar. Han adquirido la misma postura que la antigua Iglesia católica. Son los nuevos católicos españoles del siglo XVII", Cesar Cervera, Stanley G. Payne: «La resistencia de España es impresionante, los españoles lo han soportado todo», [in:] ABC 22.02.17
^ some claim to have "absolutamente nada" in common with Moa, Fernando del Rey, Por la República. La sombra del franquismo en la historiografía 'progresista', [in:] Studia historica. Historia contemporánea 33 (2015), p. 307
^ see e.g. Federico Sesia, A conversation with Stanley G. Payne, [in:] Identita Nazionale service, available here
^"nunca ha existido consenso en la historiografía académica sobre la República", Rey Reguillo 2015, p. 308
^ one scholar notes that since Preston wrote a highly critical book on Santiago Carillo he might be classified as the one who unduly shifts attention from Nationalist crimes away to the Republican ones, Rey Reguillo 2015, p. 310
^ Rob Stradling, Moaist Revolution and the Spanish Civil War: 'Revisionist' History and Historical Politics, [in:] English Historical Review CXXII/496 (2007), pp. 442-457
^ González Cuevas 2008,
similar term used also with reference to popular culture in Marie Guiribitey, Soldados de Salamina (2001): Cercas en busca de un héroe con el instinto de la virtud,, [in:] The Coastal Review 2/1 (2008), p. 2
^ Chris Ealham used to publish in International Review, a periodical issues by Socialist Workers' Party, Roberto Villa García, The Second Republic: Myths and Realities, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 51/2 (2016), p. 423
^ Gerald Blaney, Violence, Continuity, and the Spanish State: Some Considerations, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 51/2 (2016), p. 416
^ Preston point of reference - Bernat Montesinos 2007, p. 56, Ealham 2007, p. 370, Ealham 2012, p. p 198, Viñas 2017, p. 126, Anderson 2017, p. 137-138, Thomas 2017, pp. 142-3, Casanova 2017, pp. 155-6, "autor por excelencia del contrarrevisionismo español ha sido -y es- el historiador británico Paul Preston", González Cuevas 2008, juxtaposed against revisionist bias, Raymond 2012, also himself lambasting Moa and Vidal as propagandists, who brough disrepute to name of historian, Alvaro Morales, Paul Preston: "Los historiadores serios siempre estamos haciendo revisionismo", [in:] El Día 12.10.06, available here, Preston's work "has become a weapon in the Spanish 'memory wars'", del Rey 2016, p. 431
^ Robledo 2015, pp. 5-7, Bernat Montesinos 2007, p. 55, Ealham 2007, p. 367, Ealham 2012, p. 192, Gil Pecharromán 2014, p. 1, Moradiellos 2009, p. 9, González Calleja 2013, pp. 26-27, Rey Reguillo 2015, p. 306, Jorge Marco, Francoist Crimes: Denial and Invisibility, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 52/1 (2017), p. 161, and especially the entire volume dedicated to repudiate Payne, Angel Viñas, Sin respeto por la historia [extraordinary issue of Hispania Nova], 2015
^ Bernat Montesinos 2007, p. 54, González Cuevas 2008. Position of Reig Tapia as chief anti-revisinist is secured by 3 volumes he published, all dedicated exclusively to dismantle revisionist myths and published between 2008 and 2017
^Viñas Martin 2012, Viñas Martin 2015, Viñas Martin 2017. By opponents Viñas is considered the most dogmatic leader of "contrarrevisionistas", who customarily dismisses any disagreement as "revisionismo neofranquista", Pedro Carlos González Cuevas, José Carlos Mainer Baqué: Falange y literatura, [in:] La Razón Histórica 29 (2015), p. 166
^ Robledo 2014, Robledo 2015, also Ricardo Robledo Hernández, Entorn del revisionisme sobre la segona República, [in:] L' Avenç 399 (2014), pp. 6-7, Ricardo Robledo Hernández, El giro ideológico en la historia contemporánea española: "tanto o más culpables fueron las izquierdas", [in:] Carlos Forcadell Álvarez, Mercedes Yusta Rodrigo, Ignacio Peiró Martín (eds.), El pasado en construcción: revisionismos históricos en la historia, Madrid 2015, ISBN9788499113364, pp. 303-338
^ in the 1999 Combate manifiesto he was counted among "mandarines de la Historia Oficial", Moradiellos 2009, p. 11. Later he assumed anti-revisionist stand. In 2017 he posed as impartial scholar in-between these fighting "false orthodox canon" and "revisionism", yet Journal of Contemporary History published his piece among others assaulting the revisionists and Casanova placed himself among those who "have proved" that "the Civil War was not caused by the Republic", Casanova 2017, p. 149. He also admitted that to him, revisionist authors are neo-Francoists, Yo no los llamo revisionistas, sino neofranquistas, [in:] menéame service, available here. See also Julian Casanova: una intrevista, [in:] antoncastro service, available here
^ Cattini 2011, p. 34, Robledo 2015, p. 4, Pierce 2011, p. 177, Bernat Montesinos 2007, p. 53, Ealham [ongoing], p. 1, Ealham 2007, p. 367, Ealham 2012, p. 193, Gil Pecharromán 2014, p. 1, Javier Tusell, El revisionismo histórico español, [in:] El País 08.07.04, González Calleja 2013, p. 26, Robledo 2014, p. 79, Rodrigo 2004, p. 185, Sevillano Calero 2007, p. 183, Espinosa Maestre 2005, p. 5, Balfour 2006, p. 61, Eduardo González Calleja, Récupération de la mémoire et législation en Espagne. Chronique des controverses politiques et académiques, [in:] Matériaux pour l'histoire de notre temps 111-112 (2013), p. 10 [furtherly referred as González Calleja 2013b]
^ Cattini 2011, p. 34, Bernat Montesinos 2007, p. 53, Tusell 2004, González Calleja 2013, p. 26, Balfour 2006, p. 61, Sevillano Calero 2007, p. 183, Espinosa Maestre 2005, p. 5, González Calleja 2013b, p. 10, Vicent Sampedro Ramo, Fueron los primeros: la ejecucción de Loreto Apellániz y la brigada del SIM en Valencia el 3 de Abril de 1939, [in:] Gabriel Sansano, Isabel Marcillas Piquer, Juan-Boris Ruiz-Núñez (eds.), Història i poètiques de la memòria: la violència política en la representació del franquisme, Alicante 2017, ISBN9788416724369, p. 290
^ Robledo 2015, p. 4, Ealham 2012, p. 193, González Calleja 2013, p. 29, Robledo 2014, p. 77, Sánchez Pérez 2015, p. 107, Marco 2017, p. 161, Espinosa Maestre 2005, p. 5, Ignacio Olábarri Gortázar, La historiografía contemporánea en construcción, [in:] Memoria y civilización 19 (2016), p. 473
^ Robledo 2015, p. 4, Pierce 2011, p. 177, Ealham [ongoing], p. 1, Ealham 2012, p. 192, González Calleja 2013, p. 31, Rey Reguillo 2015, p. 306, Robledo 2014, p. 79, Sánchez Pérez 2015, p. 90, Marco 2017, p. 161, Espinosa Maestre 2005, p. 5, Olábarri Gortázar 2016, p. 473, Balfour 2006, p. 63
^ Robledo 2015, p. 4, Pierce 2011, p. 177, Ealham [ongoing], p. 2, Ealham 2012, p. 193, Rey Reguillo 2015, p. 306, Robledo 2014, p. 79, Sánchez Pérez 2015, p. 90, Marco 2017, p. 161, Espinosa Maestre 2005, p. 5, Olábarri Gortázar 2016, p. 473
^ Ealham 2007, pp. 374-375, Rey Reguillo 2015, p. 306, Sánchez Pérez 2015, p. 64, Marco 2017, p. 161, Espinosa Maestre 2005, p. 5, Olábarri Gortázar 2016, p. 473
^ Cattini 2011, p. 34, Robledo 2015, p. 4, Bernat Montesinos 2007, p. 53, Tusell 2004, González Calleja 2013, p. 26, Robledo 2014, p. 79, Sánchez Pérez 2015, p. 84
^see his notes on Spanish "revisionismo soft", Ignacio Peiró Martín, Historiadores en España: historia de la historia y memoria de la profesión, Zaragoza 2013, ISBN9788415770442, p. 272, and Carlos Forcadell Álvarez, Mercedes Yusta Rodrigo, Ignacio Peiró Martín (eds.), El pasado en construcción: revisionismos históricos en la historia, Madrid 2015, ISBN9788499113364
^see especially Pedro Carlos González Cuevas, La historia de las derechas a la luz del revisionismo histórico, [in:] Memoria y civilización 12 (2010), pp. 77, also González Calleja 2013, Olábarri Gortázar 2016, p. 471, Robledo 2015, p. 304 and passim, Robledo 2014, p. 78
^ Marco 2017, Jorge Marco, Excepcionalidad y cainismo: los nudos de la memoria en España, [in:] Letra
^see his damning review of scholars considered revisionists in Alejandro Quiroga, Book Reviews, [in:] Journal of Contemporary History 43/3 (2013), pp. 519-522, and the response of Rey Reguillo 2015, p. 305
^Francisco J. Rodriguez Jiménez, Stanley G. Payne, ¿Una trayectoria academica ejamplar? [in:] Angel Viñas (ed.), Sin respeto por la historia [extraordinary issue of Hispania Nova], 2015, pp. 24-54
^ Moradiellos 2009, Enrique Moradiellos, Critical Historical Revision and Political Revisionism: the Case of Spain, [in:] Journal of Iberian Studies 21/3 (2008), pp. 219-229, Constenla 2012
^his highly critical account of Francoist historiography in Michael Richards, After the Civil War. Making Memory and Re-making Spain since 1936, Cambridge 2013, ISBN9780521728188, also Michael Richards, The limits of quantification: Francoist repression and historical methodology, [in:] Hispania Nova 7 (2007). Richards has not explicitly taken part in debate on revisionism, yet is fairly often quoted by anti-revisionists as an example of high-quality, rigorous work, and confronted with allegedly low-quality revisionist works, compare e.g. Reig Tapia 2015, p. 63
^for her chief critique of revisionism see Helen Graham, From memory wars to history wars: revisionism in the twenty-first-century Academy in Spain, [in:] Helen Graham (ed.), Interrogating Francoism: History and Dictatorship in Twentieth-Century Spain, London 2015, ISBN9781472576361, pp. 10-13. In what other scholars describe as "politically uncompromising introduction", Graham allegedly "launches a wide attack on many Spanish historians" and "she divides us [historians] into just two groups: people who think like her - which I must assume to be both progressive and true democrats - and the more or less openly pro-Franco "revisionists"', Antonio Cazorla Sanchez, Interrogating Francoism [review], [in:] Journal of Modern History 90 (2018), pp. 220-221. For her positive lecture see also e.g. Helen Graham, Breve Historia de la Guerra Civil, Madrid 2006, ISBN9788467020151; she is quoted by chief anti-revisionist as a model of unbiased synthesis and juxtaposed against unreliable revisionist production, Ealham 2007, pp. 365-376
^Juan Carlos Losada, La consipiración y la Guerra Civil para Payne y Palacios, [in:] Angel Viñas (ed.), Sin respeto por la historia [extraordinary issue of Hispania Nova], 2015, pp. 136-149
^ in 1999 counted among ,,mandarines de la Historia Oficial" by authors of the Combate, Moradiellos 2009, p. 11, see also Espinosa Maestre 2005, p. 5
^ Anderson 2017, Peter Anderson, Miguel Ángel del Arco Blanco, Mass Killings and Violence in Spain, 1936-1952: Grappling with the Past, New York 2014, ISBN 978113511485
^an example of relatively moderate anti-revisionist, who refrains from advancing charges of politically-driven agenda, Francoist legacy or manipulation, see Gil Pecharromán 2014. For his own vision see Julio Gil Pecharroman, Conservadores subversivos. La derecha radical alfonsina, 1913-1936, Madrid 1994, ISBN9788477541578
^see his presentation of historiography on the Republic in Octavio Ruiz-Manjon, La Segunda Republica espanola. Balance historiografico de una experiencia democratizadora, [in:] Ayer 63 (2006), p. 279-297
^see La larga sombra del franquismo historiográfico, [in:] El Pais 11.05.12
^ emphasis on parallels between Francoist Spain, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy as demonstrated by "Casanova, Gomez and Marco is an uncomfortable reality for the 'truth' of the revisionists", Ealham 2012, p. 201
^Sebastian Balfour, El revisionismo histórico y la Guerra Civil, [in:] Pasajes: Revista de pensamiento contemporáneo 19 (2006), pp. 61-65
^ see e.g. Sánchez Recio 2015, where the author strives to dismantle Payne and Palacios' biography of Franco as erroneous because of "ideological and historiographic interests of the two biographers"
^see e.g. Riesco Roche 2015, where the author intends to prove that in their biography of Franco both Payne and Palacios consciously disregarded historiographic works which did not fit their pre-adopted thesis
^historian of an older generation, Arranz is presented as intellectual master to some young revisionists, see e.g. Robledo 2015, pp. 5-7. See also Ealham 2012, p. 197, Quiroga 2013, p. 520
^Initially Ranzato was considered an impartial, objective historian, compare e.g. Ealham 2007, p. 371. Things changed following publication of his volume on heritage of the Civil War, and other works, especially Gabriele Ranzato, La grande paura del 1936. Come la Spagna precipitó nella guerra civila, Bari 2011, ISBN9788842096474, and Gabriele Ranzato, El eclipse de la democracia. La Guerra Civil española (1936-1942), Madrid 2006, ISBN9788432312489, see Robledo 2015, p. 5, Sánchez Pérez 2015, p. 107.
^ Moradiellos 2009, p. 3, Sánchez Pérez 2015, p. 84, El fenómeno revisonista en España: en torno a Pio Moa, [in:] Minucias públicas, available here. One scholar refers to Moa and Martin Rubio as "cabeza de fila del revisionismo", Alberto Reig Tapia, La crítica de la crítica: Inconsecuentes, insustanciales, impotentes, prepotentes y equidistantes, Madrid 2017, ISBN9788432318795
^ Robledo 2015, p. 8, Ealham 2012, p. 196, Octavio Ruiz-Manjon, La Segunda Republica espanola. Balance historiografico de una experiencia democratizadora, [in:] Ayer 63 (2006), p. 296
^ Robledo 2015, p. 5, González Calleja 2013, p. 31, González Calleja 2013b, p. 10, Robledo 2015, p. 85, Quiroga 2013, p. 519, Sergio Riesco Roche, De omisiones relevantes: Franco, la cuestión agrarie y las controrsiones de Stanley G. Payne, [in:] Angel Viñas (ed.), Sin respeto por la historia [extraordinary issue of Hispania Nova], 2015, pp. 118, 121, 123
^ ab Moradiellos 2009, p. 3, Sampedro Ramo 2017, p. 290, El fenómeno revisonista en España: en torno a Pio Moa, [in:] Minucias públicas, available here
^Robledo 2014, p. 79, Olábarri Gortázar 2016, p. 473
^ Robledo 2015, p. 5, Ealham 2012, p. p 198, Espinosa Maestre 2005, p. 5, Olábarri Gortázar 2016, p. 473
^ Moradiellos 2009, p. 3, González Calleja 2013, p. 27, El fenómeno revisonista en España: en torno a Pio Moa, [in:] Minucias públicas, available here
^see notes on Stradling allegedly using fallacy arguments and taking part in "revisionist crusade", Richards 2007, p. 10. Stradling countered that "a diminishing band of historians defends the reputation of the 'beautiful maiden' who symbolised the least honest democracy in modern history", Rob Stradling, Review: The Spanish Second Republic Revisited: From Democratic Hopes to Civil War (1931-1936), [in:] The English Historical Review 130/542 (2015), p. 237
^ González Calleja 2013, p. 27; his key revisionist work is supposed to be Enrique Sacanell, El general Sanjurjo, héroe y victima. El militar que pudo evitar la dictadura franquista, Madrid 2004, ISBN9788497342056
^ Terexa Constenla, Historiadores contra revisionistas, [in:] El País 07.04.12, available here
^Robledo 2014, referred after Rey Reguillo 2015, p. 306
^ José Luis Ledesma, Franco y las violencias de la guerra civil, [in:] Angel Viñas, Sin respeto por la historia [extraordinary issue of Hispania Nova] 2015, p. 160, Reig Tapia 2015, p. 57. Blazquez Miguel is criticized as a revisionist on basis of his two works, España turbulenta: alteraciones, violencia y sangre durante la II República (2007) and Auténtico Franco. Trayectoria militár, 1907-1939 (2009)
^Antonio Rodriguez Rodriguez, El revisionismo histórico, [in:] El Pais 22.05.01, available here
^"otro célebre hispanista, Jan Kieniewicz, cobra tintes de una postura cuasi «revisionista», puesto que abunda en algunas de las más discutibles tesis de los 'Mitos de la Guerra Civil', de Pío Moa", Olga Glondys, Entre la propaganda y la verdad: cambios del paradigma en el discurso polaco sobre la guerra civil española, [in:] Studia Histórica 32 (2014), p. 509
^ Núñez Seixas, Stucki 2010, p. 215, Núñez 2010, p. 42. According to Núñez-Seixas Chodakiewicz earned his revisionist credentials thanks to booklet Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, Zagrabiona pami. Wojna w Hiszpanii (1936-1939), Warszawa 1997
^five Zaragoza academics are among key anti-revisionists: Carlos Forcadell Alvarez, Antonio Bernat Montesinos, Ignacio Peiró Martín, Julián Casanova Ruiz and José-Carles Mainer Baqué
^the electronic journal Hispania Nueva fairly often publishes militant anti-revisionist articles and issued an extraordinary issue dedicated exclusively to criticise Franco's biography by Stanley G. Payne. One of its two editors-in-chief is an anti-revisionist, Eduardo González Calleja
^among mainstream dailies El País is perhaps the most anti-revisionist one, compare Javier Tusell, El revisionismo histórico español (08.07.04), Julián Casanova, Mentiras convincentes (14.06.05), Enrique Moradiellos, Uso y abuso de la historia. La Guerra Civil (31.10.05), Ludger Mees, El pasado que no quiere pasar (15.09.06), Javier Pradera, Revisionismo histórico (23.03.05), José María Ridao, El revisionismo ataca (18.07.06), Javier Cercas, Revisar la revision (31.05.07), José Vidal Beneyto, Los codiciados frutos del olvidos (20.01.08), Terexa Constenla, Franco, ese (no tan mal) hombre (30.05.11), Tereixa Constenla, Historiadores contra revisionistas (07.04.12), Jorge M. Reverte, Manual de combate (14.04.12), Borja de Riquer, La larga sombra del franquismo historiográfico (11.05.12), Manuel Rodriguez Rivero, El pasado es impredecible (29.07.17)
^Journal published the most vehemently anti-revisionist article which appeared in the scientific realm, penned by Ealham in 2012. It took demands backed by legal arguments before historians lambasted in Ealham's review were allowed to reply, though their responses were paired with one more article, which suggested that the authors did not realize what "the duty of the historian" is, Carmichael 2016, p. 438. A year later Journal allowed double that amount of space to a new spate of anti-revisionist articles. Moreover, the chief editor of Journal dismissed the revisionists as not adhering to the point and discussed their work against the background of revisionism being illegal in Germany, Evans 2017, p. 119