Roller Derby
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Roller Derby
Roller derby
WasatchVsJunctionCity.jpg
A roller derby scrimmage in Utah.
Highest governing bodyWFTDA, MRDA, JRDA, FIRS
NicknamesDerby
First played1935, Chicago, Illinois
Clubs4,700+
Characteristics
ContactYes
Team members15 on roster, up to 5 on track during each jam.[1]
TypeIndoor, roller sport
EquipmentRoller skates, helmet, knee pads, elbow pads, wrist guards, mouthguard
VenueRoller rink
Presence
OlympicNo

Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating counter-clockwise around a track. Roller derby is played by approximately 1,250 amateur leagues worldwide, mostly inside the United States.[2]

Game play consists of a series of short match-ups (jams) in which both teams designate a jammer (who wears a star on the helmet). The jammer scores points by lapping members of the opposing team. The teams attempt to hinder the opposing jammer while assisting their own jammer--in effect, playing both offense and defense simultaneously.[3]

While the sport has its origins in the banked-track roller-skating marathons of the 1930s, Leo Seltzer and Damon Runyon are credited with evolving the sport to its competitive form. Professional roller derby quickly became popular; in 1940, more than 5 million spectators watched in about 50 American cities. In the ensuing decades, however, it predominantly became a form of sports entertainment, where theatrical elements overshadowed athleticism. Gratuitous showmanship largely ended with the sport's grassroots revival in the first decade of the 21st century.[4] Although roller derby retains some sports entertainment qualities such as player pseudonyms and colorful uniforms, it has abandoned scripted bouts with predetermined winners.[5]

Modern roller derby is an international sport, mostly played by amateurs. Most teams are all-female teams, but there is a growing number of male, unisex, and junior roller derby teams. It was under consideration as a roller sport for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[6][7][8]FIRS, recognized by the International Olympic Committee as the official international governing body of roller sports, released its first set of Roller Derby Rules for the World Roller Games that took place September 2017 in Nanjing, China. Most modern leagues (and their back-office volunteers) share a strong "do-it-yourself" ethic[9] that combines athleticism with the styles of punk and camp.[10] As of 2018, the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA) had 423 full member leagues and 46 apprentice leagues.[11]

Rules

A Charm City All Stars (Baltimore, Maryland) blocker vs. a Rhode Island Riveter (Providence, Rhode Island) jammer

Contemporary roller derby has a basic set of rules, with variations reflecting the interests of a governing body's member leagues. The summary below is based on the rules of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA).[1] In March 2010, Derby News Network claimed that more than 98% of roller derby competitions were conducted under WFTDA rules.[12] For example, members of the United Kingdom Roller Derby Association are required to play by WFTDA rules,[13] while members of the former Canadian Women's Roller Derby Association were encouraged to join the WFTDA.[14]

Basics of play

Position Helmet cover[1]:7 Responsibility
Jammer Stars Scores points by lapping opposing team members, which can include a point attained by passing the opposing team's jammer[1]:7
Blocker None Forms the pack,[15]:18 hinders the opposing jammer from passing through the pack, and helps their team's jammer pass through the pack.[16]
Pivot Stripe A blocker who may be converted to a jammer during the course of a jam,[1]:7 if the jammer's helmet cover is correctly transferred in a "star pass" maneuver.[15]:29 The pivot is often an experienced player who establishes team strategy during play and sets the pace of the pack.[17][15]:19

Roller derby is played in two periods of 30 minutes.[1]:4 Two teams of up to 15 players each field up to five members for episodes called "jams." Jams last two minutes unless called off prematurely.[1]:5 Each team designates a scoring player (the "jammer"); the other four members are "blockers." One blocker can be designated as a "pivot"--a blocker who is allowed to become a jammer in the course of play.[1]:7 The next jam may involve different players of the 15 roster players, and different selections for jammer and pivot.[1]:7

During each jam, players skate counterclockwise on a circuit track. Points are scored only by a team's jammer. After breaking through the pack and skating one lap to begin another "trip" through the pack, the jammer scores one point for passing any member of the opposing team.[1]:33 The rules describe an "earned" pass; notably, the jammer must be in-bounds and upright. The jammer's first earned pass scores a point for passing that opponent and a point for each opponent not on the track (for instance, serving a penalty, or when the opposition did not field five players for the jam). If the jammer passes the entire pack and the opposing jammer too, it is a five-point scoring trip, commonly called a "grand slam."

Each team's blockers use body contact, changing positions, and other tactics to help their jammer score while hindering the opposing team's jammer.

Jams

Two jammers (from the Oly Rollers and Rainy City) race from the jammer line

Play begins by blockers lining up on the track anywhere between the "jammer line" and the "pivot line" 30 feet in front. The jammers start behind the jammer line.[1]:12 Jams begin on a single short whistle blast, upon which both jammers and blockers may begin engaging immediately.

Lonestar Rollergirls in Austin, Texas, play on a banked track. The jammer (wearing the starred helmet cover) is trying to pass a pivot (wearing a striped cover) with various blockers assisting.

The pack is the largest single group of blockers containing members of both teams skating in proximity, arranged such that each player is within 10 feet of the next.[1]:11 Blockers must maintain the pack, but can skate freely within 20 feet behind and ahead of it, an area known as the "engagement zone."[1]:13

The first jammer to break through the pack earns the status of "lead jammer."[1]:7 A designated referee blows the whistle twice, and skates near, and points at, the lead jammer. Once earned, lead jammer status cannot be transferred to other skaters, but certain actions (notably, being sent to the penalty box) can cause it to be lost.[1]:8 The lead jammer can stop the jam at any time by repeatedly placing both hands on their hips.[1]: If the jam is not stopped early, it ends after two minutes.[1]:5 If time remains in the period, teams then have 30 seconds to get on the track and line up for the next jam.[1]:5 If the period expires, it does not halt a jam that is underway.

Blocking

An Idahoan blocker impedes a Utahn pivot at Spudtown Knockdown IV in 2013 in Garden City, Idaho.

A skater may block an opponent to impede their movement or to force them out of bounds. The blocker must be upright, skating counterclockwise, in bounds, and within the engagement zone. Blocking with hands, elbows, head, and feet is prohibited, as is contact above the shoulders or below mid-thigh, and blocking from behind.[1]:14

Penalties

A German pivot attempts to knock a Dutch jammer out of bounds (the yellow line) at a 2011 bout held in Essen, Germany.

Referees penalize rules violations.[1]:36 A player receiving a penalty is removed from play to sit in a penalty box for 30 seconds of jam time.[1]:29 If the jam ends during this interval, the player remains in the penalty box during the subsequent jam until the interval ends.[1]:30 The penalized player's team plays short-handed, as in ice hockey.

However, the "power jam", derived from hockey's "power play", does not cover any short-handed situation but only the case where the jammer is penalized.[18] In this case, that team cannot score. While the lead jammer is penalized, no one can prematurely end the jam.

It would be pointless to play if neither team could score; thus, a jammer is released from the penalty box early if the opponents' jammer enters the box. The second jammer's penalty is then only as long as the amount of time the first jammer spent in the box.[1]:31 A player "fouls out" of the game on the seventh penalty, and is required to return to the locker room.[1]:32

Equipment

Players skate on four-wheeled ("quad") roller skates,[1]:11 and are required to wear protective equipment, including a helmet, wrist guards, elbow pads, knee pads, and mouth guards. All current sets of roller derby rules explicitly forbid inline skates for players. (USARS requires quad skates for all skaters. WFTDA and MRDA permit inline skates for referees, but virtually all referees wear quad skates.) Individual teams may mandate additional gear, such as padded knee length pants, similar to what aggressive skateboarders wear, and biologically specific gear such as a hard-case sports bra for female players and protective cups for males.[1]:39

Strategy and tactics

Offense and defense are played simultaneously,[19] a volatile aspect that complicates strategy and tactics. For example, blockers may create a large hole for their jammer to pass through and score, but this same maneuver might also allow the opposing team's jammer to score.[20][21]

Strategies (high-level plans toward achieving the game's goal, which is to outscore the opposition) include the following:

  • Ending the jam: The lead jammer can "call off" or end the jam at any time, controlling the opposition's ability to score points. The strategy for a jam is not to score a lot of points but to outscore the opposition. Often, the lead jammer scores as many points as possible on the first scoring trip, and then ends the jam before the opposing jammer can begin a scoring trip.[22] If the jammer gets the lead but falls behind the opposing jammer, the coach may conclude that the team will be outscored and direct the jammer to call off the jam.
  • Passing the star: The jammer for a team may "pass the star" (may perform a "star pass") to the pivot--that is, hand the helmet cover with the star to the pivot, which turns the pivot into the jammer.[1]:9 Passing the star does not nullify any earned pass of an opponent that the former jammer made, but passing the star forward never constitutes an earned pass. A jammer might pass the star because of fatigue, injury, or because the pivot is in a better position to score.[23] Passing the star is also sometimes referred to as "passing the panty", as helmet covers are sometimes known as "panties".[24]
  • Penalty-killing: Captained by the pivot, blockers adapt their play to a penalty situation. For example, a short-handed team may try to make the pack skate faster to slow down scoring action until the team returns to full strength.[17]

Tactics (deliberate conceptual tasks in support of the strategy) may include the following:

  • Walling up: Two or more blockers skate together to make it difficult for the opposing team (especially its jammer) to maneuver. They may skate side-by-side and use a "wide stance" to maximize the blockade, but must not link with or grasp each other, or otherwise form an impenetrable connection.[1] The ability to suddenly form a wall denies the opposition time to respond. A wall can inhibit, slow down, and ultimately trap the opposing jammer. An effective wall may last for an entire jam. Variations on the tactic include the following:
    • Backwards bracing, in which one skater, forward of the wall, skates backward to sight the jammer and direct teammates forming the wall.
    • A skater may break off from the wall to actively challenge the opposing jammer, with a teammate replacing the skater in the wall.[25]
    • If the opposing jammer tries to pass the wall on one side, players may abandon the other side to fortify the active side of the wall.
Two Wellington skaters (in purple) form a wall, limiting their opponents' movement, while their jammer (leftmost skater in purple) takes a hip whip to accelerate past the pack
  • Jammer tactics, in response to a wall or other obstacles by the defense, include the following:
    • Pushing through gaps in the wall or inducing the wall to separate by use of physical force.
    • Evading the obstacle to one side or the other.
    • Juking, where the jammer seems to be skating to one side but quickly shifts to the other side.
    • Rolling around the end of the obstacle (spinning 360°) to end up forward of it.[26]
    • Using teammates to impede the defense from adjusting, such as by setting screens.
    • Using a whip, where one or more teammates grasp the jammer's hand(s) and swing the jammer forward, transferring speed and momentum to the jammer.[27]
    • Using the inside curve of the track to leap out of bounds but land in bounds.
  • Goating: The pack is defined as the largest group of in-bounds blockers, skating in proximity, containing members from both teams.[1]:11 In the "goat-herding" tactic, one team surrounds a blocker of the opposing team, and then slows so that that group becomes the pack. The rest of the opposing team, skating ahead, are thus put out of play and cannot legally block the goat-herders' jammer.
  • Running back or recycling: When a skater bumps the opponent jammer off the track, the jammer can only re-enter the track behind the skater. The skater skates clockwise on the track toward the rear of the engagement zone to maximize the time the jammer must spend before returning to action.[28]
  • Bridging: By separating up to 10 feet, blockers can stretch both the pack and the engagement zone, allowing teammates to keep hindering the opposition jammer. For example, in the strategy of running back (see above), coordinated action by the four skaters other than the jammer could force the opponent jammer to detour a full 40 feet before returning to action.[29]

Officials

WFTDA bouts are officiated by three to seven skating referees and many non-skating officials (NSOs).[1]:35 Volunteer leagues adapt when fewer than the optimal number of officials are present.

Referees

Referees skate on the inside of the track; in flat-track derby, some also skate on the outside of the track. They call penalties, award points, and ensure safe game play.[1]:36 Referees must wear skates and typically wear white and black stripes.[1]:38

Type Number Responsibility
Head Referee 1 The head referee is responsible for the general supervision of the bout and has final authority on all rulings. The head referee skates as an inside pack referee, but is also responsible for issuing expulsions[1]:35 and for announcing the results of official reviews.[1]:38
Pack Referee Up to 5 Pack referees are responsible for watching the skaters in the pack, pack definition and calling penalties. They are located both inside and outside the track.[1]:35[15]:29
Jammer Referees 2 Skating on the inside of the track,[15]:29 jammer referees watch the jammers of a specific team and wear a wristband (and optionally a helmet cover) in that team's color to identify which team they are watching.[1]:35 They award points for opponents passed by their jammer,[1]:36 and signal whether theirs is the lead jammer.[15]:29

Non-skating officials (NSOs)

NSOs take up a range of positions inside and outside the track, start and time the jams, record and display scores and penalties communicated by referees, record the number of each skater on track for a given jam, and time and record skaters in the penalty box.

Type Number Responsibility
Scorekeepers 2 Record points scored by jammers.[1]:36
Penalty Trackers 1 (min) Trackers record each skater's penalties[1]:36 and notify the head referee of skaters in the current jam who are in danger of fouling out.[1]
Penalty Box Manager 1 The manager is the head of the affairs within the penalty box. The manager can call penalties for penalty box violations or illegal procedures (such as removing the helmet in the penalty box). Also, the manager points where the player is assigned to sit, times the jammers, and executes any necessary jammer swap.[]
Penalty Box Timers 2 (min) Penalty box timers ensure skaters sent to the penalty box serve their entire penalties,[1]:36 and notify referees if any do not.[1]
Jam Timer 1 The jam timer starts jams, signals when a jam runs to the full two minutes, times the 30 seconds between jams,[1]:36 and calls an official timeout if the teams are not ready to start a new jam at the end of that interval.
Inside Whiteboard 1 This NSO maintains a whiteboard in the center of the track that shows each skater's accumulated penalties.[1]:36
Lineup 2 This NSO records every player on the track in each jam[1]:5
Scoreboard Operator 1 This NSO updates each team's score after every scoring pass.[1]:36

History

Professional endurance races

Two women's league roller derby skaters leap over two who have fallen in a March 1950 bout in New York City

The growing popularity of roller skating in the United States led to the formation of organized multi-day endurance races for cash prizes, as early as the mid-1880s.[30][31][32] Speed and endurance races continued to be held on both flat and banked tracks in the century's first three decades[33] and spectators enjoyed the spills and falls of the skaters.[34][35] The term derby was used to refer to such races by 1922.[36][note 1]

Evolution to contact sport

The endurance races began to transform into the contemporary form of the sport in the mid-1930s, when promoter Leo Seltzer[note 2][note 3] created the Transcontinental Roller Derby, a month-long simulation of a road race between two-person teams of professional skaters.[39] The spectacle became a popular touring exhibition.[40][41] In the late 1930s, sportswriter Damon Runyon persuaded Seltzer to change the Roller Derby rules to increase skater contact.[39] By 1939, after experimenting with different team and scoring arrangements, Seltzer's created a touring company of four pairs of teams (always billed as the local "home" team versus either New York or Chicago),[42] with two five-person teams on the track at once, scoring points when its members lapped opponents.[43]

Television

On November 29, 1948, before television viewership was widespread, Roller Derby debuted on New York television.[44]:89 The broadcasts increased spectator turnout for live matches.[45] For the 1949-1950 season, Seltzer formed the National Roller Derby League (NRDL), comprising six teams.[46][44]:95 NRDL season playoffs sold out Madison Square Garden for a week.[46] During the late 1950s and 1960s, the sport was broadcast on several networks, but attendance declined. Jerry Seltzer (Leo's son), the Roller Derby "commissioner", hoped to use television to expand the live spectator base. He adapted the sport for television by developing scripted story lines and rules designed to improve television appeal, but derby's popularity declined.[44]

1989 saw the debut of RollerGames, an even more theatrical variant of roller derby for national audiences. It used a figure-8 track and rules adapted for this track. Bill Griffiths, Sr. served as commissioner while his son, Bill Griffiths, Jr., managed the L.A. T-Birds, who (according to the storyline) were seeking revenge on the Violators (led by Skull) for cheating in the Commissioner's Cup. The other teams included the Maniacs (led by Guru Drew), Bad Attitude (led by Ms. Georgia Hase), the Rockers (led by DJ Terringo and consisting of skaters who were also professional rock and roll musicians), and Hot Flash (led by Juan Valdez Lopez). It ran one season, because some of its syndicators went bankrupt.

In 1999, TNN (now Spike TV) debuted RollerJam, which used the classic rules and banked oval track, but allowed inline skates (although some skaters wore traditional quad skates). Jerry Seltzer was commissioner for this version.

Contemporary roller derby

Standard (WFTDA/MRDA/USARS[47] flat track roller derby) track. The MADE track differs in that the straightaways do not taper but are uniform in width along their full length.

Amateur revival

A Windy City Rollers (Chicago, Illinois) jammer
Teams competing in Hobart, Australia, in November 2010

Roller derby began its modern revival in Austin, Texas in the early 2000s as an all-female, woman-organized amateur sport.[48] By August 2006, there were over 135 similar leagues.[49] Leagues outside the U.S. also began forming in 2006, and international competition soon followed. There are over 2,000 amateur leagues worldwide[50] in countries including Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, France,[51]Brazil, New Zealand, Germany, Belgium, Finland, Norway,[52]Sweden,[53]Denmark,[54]Israel,[55]Singapore,[56][57][58]Dubai,[59][60] and Egypt.[61][62][63] In many international leagues, gear and equipment must be imported.[64] Roller derby's contemporary resurgence has been regarded as an aspect of globalization which demonstrates "the speed with which pop culture is now transported by highly mobile expatriates and social media, while also highlighting the changing role of women in many societies."[2]

Many roller derby leagues are amateur, self-organized and all-female[65] and were formed in a do-it-yourself spirit by relatively new enthusiasts.[66] In many leagues (especially in the U.S.), a punk[67][68]aesthetic and/or third-wave feminist[69]ethic is prominent.[70] Members of fledgling leagues often practice and strategize together, regardless of team affiliation, between bouts.[71] Most compete on flat tracks, though several leagues skate on banked tracks, with more in the planning stages.[72]

Each league typically features local teams in public bouts that are popular with a diverse fan base.[73] Some venues host audiences ranging up to 7,000.[74] Successful local leagues have formed traveling teams comprising the league's best players to compete with comparable teams from other cities and regions. In February 2012, the International Olympic Committee considered roller derby, among eight sports, for inclusion in the 2020 Olympic Games.[75][76]

In 2009, the feature film Whip It was based on roller derby and introduced viewers to its rules and culture. The WFTDA encouraged leagues to coordinate with promotions during the film's release to increase awareness of the leagues.[77] Corporate advertising has used roller derby themes in television commercials for insurance,[78] a breakfast cereal,[79] and an over-the-counter analgesic.[80]

Derby names

Santa Cruz Derby Girls v Pacific Roller Derby at the 2011 Dust Devil tournament. Players wear a uniform shirt with leggings. Some wear short shorts and knee/thigh high socks.
Examples of derby names[81]
Name Allusion
Guinefear of Jamalot Guinevere of Camelot
Mazel Tov Cocktail Mazel tov, Molotov cocktail
O Hell No Kitty Hello Kitty
Sandra Day O'Clobber Sandra Day O'Connor
Punky Bruiser Punky Brewster
Roly Mary Mother of Quad Holy Mary Mother of God
Ania Marx On Your Marks
Princess Lay-Ya Flat Princess Leia
Anna Mosity Animosity
Smack Ops Black Ops
Trauma Queen Drama Queen

Most players in roller leagues skate under pseudonyms, also called "derby names" or "skater names." These typically use word play with satirical, mock-violent or sexual puns, alliteration, and allusions to pop culture. Referees use derby names as well,[82] often shown on the backs of their striped uniforms. Some players claim their names represent alter egos that they adopt while skating.[83]

Whether a team should skate under real names or derby names is sometimes debated.[84] Some derby names are obscene, and this attracts controversy among other skaters.[85]

Copying of derby names has attracted legal and sociological analysis as an example of indigenous development of property rights.[10] New players are encouraged to check derby names against an international roster to ensure they are not already in use.[81][86]

The names of roller derby events are also sardonic and convoluted--for example, Night of the Rolling Dead (Night of the Living Dead), Knocktoberfest (Oktoberfest), Spanksgiving (Thanksgiving), Seasons Beatings (Seasons Greetings), Grandma Got Run Over By a Rollergirl (Grandma Got Run Over by a Reindeer), Cinco de May-hem (Cinco de Mayo), and War of the Wheels (War of the Worlds).[87]

Safety

EMTs and others tend to an injured skater.

Roller derby is a contact sport, and injuries can occur. Superficial injuries include torn eyelashes and "fishnet burn", a stippled effect of falling while wearing fishnet hose.[88] However, torn ligaments, broken bones, and concussions also occur.[89][90][91]

Some leagues prominently display their injuries, to embellish the image of violence or machismo.[92][93] However, some skaters say the sport is reasonably safe if skaters take precautions.[94] The rules require appropriate medical professionals on-site at every bout,[1]:39 even if not required by laws or arena regulations. The WFTDA offers insurance for leagues in the United States with legal liability and accident coverage, but it recommends that skaters also carry their own primary medical insurance.[95]

Expansion

Although the early 2000s revival of roller derby was initially all-female, some leagues later introduced all-male teams and unisex games; as of May 2013 there were over 140 junior roller derby programs in the United States, and many more around the world.[96]

Roller derby bouts are now streamed online, and there is archived video of past bouts and tournaments. The WFTDA offers live streaming video of its tournaments at wftda.tv. Derby News Network (www.DerbyNewsNetwork.com) offered live streaming video and archived video including events outside the WFTDA.

FiveOnFive magazine covers roller derby and diverse aspects such as business, training, junior roller derby, and nutrition.[97]

Governance and organization

The largest governing body for the sport is the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA), with 397 full member leagues and 48 apprentice leagues.[11] WFTDA membership is a major goal of aspiring leagues.[98] Other associations support either coed or men-only derby; the largest organization supporting male roller derby is the Men's Roller Derby Association (MRDA).[99][100][101] Within the United States, the Junior Roller Derby Association governs play by those under 18. It modifies the WFTDA rules for minors, such as prohibiting hitting and accelerating into a block.[102] Some U.S. leagues decline affiliation with a national organization because they prefer local governance.[103][104]

USA Roller Sports (USARS) is recognized by the International Roller Sports Federation (FIRS) and the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) as the National Governing Body of competitive roller sports in the United States, including speed, figure, hockey, roller derby and slalom. WFTDA and USARS maintain a reciprocity agreement for insurance purposes.[105]

Outside the United States, many roller derby leagues enjoy support from their national skate federations, such as Skate Australia,[106] the British Roller Sports Federation,[107] and Roller Sports Canada.[108] In Europe, roller derby was recognized as a sport in Paris in 2010 by the Federation Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS), which reports directly to the International Olympic Committee. As of 2017, FIRS has been accepted as the international rule set by the International Olympic Committee. Teams competed under the FIRS rules at The World Roller Games 2017 in Nanjing, China.[109] The former Canadian Women's Roller Derby Association worked with the American federation.[110]

Tournaments

Since 2006, the WFTDA has sponsored an annual championship. In 2008, it took the current "Big 5" format: four regional playoffs and a final championship tournament.[111] The WFTDA also recognizes eligible tournaments hosted by member leagues.[112] Internationally, the first Roller Derby World Cup took place in Toronto, Canada, in December 2011.[113] The second World Cup took place in Dallas, Texas, in December 2014.[114] Since 2012, USARS has held an annual Roller Derby National Championship. In 2017, FIRS and the USOC recognized USARS to participate in the Nanjing games.[109]

Social significance

Zaina Arafat asserts in Virginia Quarterly Review that roller derby defies heteronormativity and patriarchal standards. In Egypt, Arafat says, there are expectations that a woman will not show visible scars, will have an unblemished body for her husband, and will refrain from activities that may damage her body. She says roller derby in Egypt is subversive, as it acts as an indirect political statement.[115]

Carly Giesler states that skaters enact sexualities that create or reclaim an identity, and their role parodies "hegemonic scripts of sexuality" through the use of costumes, derby names and personas. Roller derby acts as a unique stage for female athletes, letting them rebut constraints society places on women and female athletes. Giesler argues that female sports objectifies them for the male gaze, but roller derby turns this on its head by disregarding gender roles and norms.[116]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Roland Cloni of Akron, world's champion roller skater, who yesterday tried out the track in the Broadway armory, where the national roller skating derby will be held this week, asserted new world's records can be established for flat tracks. The derby will open tomorrow and run until Saturday."[36]
  2. ^ Sources disagree on whether it was Leo alone or with his brother, the skate maker Oscar Seltzer.[37][38]
  3. ^ "Roller derby has entertained the masses in one form or another since the 1930s, when brothers Leo and Oscar Seltzer conceptualized the idea of a skating contest on a Chicago restaurant tablecloth."[37]

References

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  2. ^ a b Moffett, Matt (2013-02-03). "As the World Turns, So Do the Wheels of Roller Derby". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Common Ground: the alternative sport of roller derby". YouTube. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "Roller Derby: The Fastest Growing Sport In America". YouTube. 2012-02-26. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Neale, Rick (24 June 2008). "All-Female Roller Derby Elbows Its Way In as a Legitimate Sport", USA Today
  6. ^ "Will roller derby be included in the 2020 Olympics? | Olympics | Sports | National Post". Sports.nationalpost.com. 4 July 2011. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  7. ^ "Roller Sports's pitch for the 2020 Olympics". Olympictalk.nbcsports.com. 2013-05-28. Retrieved .
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  9. ^ "SpudTown Knockdown 3: An Interview with CandyMan, Tournament Director | Fragglepuss". Fragglepuss.wordpress.com. 2012-08-29. Retrieved .
  10. ^ a b Fagundes, Dave (2011-03-15). "Talk Derby to Me: Intellectual Property Norms Governing Roller Derby Pseudonyms". Papers.ssrn.com. Retrieved .
  11. ^ a b "WFTDA Leagues". WFTDA. 2017. Retrieved .
  12. ^ "DNN Releases First Power Rankings of 2010". Derby News Network. 2010-03-05. Archived from the original on 2011-12-01. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "Join Us". United Kingdom Roller Derby Association. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "Welcome to CWRDA". Canadian Women's Roller Derby Association. Archived from the original on 2009-05-10. Retrieved .
  15. ^ a b c d e f Parnavelas, Ellen (2012). The Roller Derby Athlete. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4088-3239-4.
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  23. ^ Crouse, Tripp (15 July 2011). "Five Point Grand Slam: By the Position - Pivot/No. 1". Fivepointgrandslam.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2017.
  24. ^ "Passing the Panty". Derbystein.wordpress.com. 9 August 2015. Retrieved 2017.
  25. ^ Bump, Speed. "Strategy 101: The Wall". Rose City Rollers. Retrieved 2011.
  26. ^ Lucy Croysdill. "Roller Derby Training: Evasive Jamming - Part One". pivotstar.com. Retrieved .
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