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Timeline of Architecture
This is a
timeline of architecture, indexing the individual year in architecture pages. Notable events in architecture and related disciplines including structural engineering, landscape architecture, and city planning. One significant architectural achievement is listed for each year.
Articles for each year (in bold text, below) are summarized here with a significant event as a reference point.
- 2019 City Palace reconstruction in Berlin projected for completion.
- The 2018 Wuhan Greenland Center in Wuhan is set to be completed and will become the tallest building in China when completed at 636 meters (2087 feet).
- 2017 Apple's new headquarters Apple Park, designed by Norman Foster, is set to open in Cupertino, California.
- 2016 MahaNakhon opens in Bangkok, Zaha Hadid dies.
- 2015 Shanghai Tower in Shanghai, the tallest building in China and the second-tallest building in the world, gets completed, Charles Correa dies.
- 2014 One World Trade Center opens in New York City.
- 2013 Gran Torre Santiago is completed in Santiago.
- The 2012 Tokyo Skytree opens in Tokyo, The Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is open in London for the 2012 Summer Olympics, Oscar Niemeyer dies.
- 2011 Al Hamra Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Kuwait, completed. - 2010 Burj Khalifa became the tallest man-made structure in the world, at 828 metres (2,717 ft).
- 2009 CityCenter opens on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. This project is the largest privately funded construction project in the history of the United States.
- " 2008 Water Cube", " Bird's Nest", South Railway Station, and other buildings in Beijing, completed for the 2008 Summer Olympics.
- Tarald Lundevall completes the 2007 Oslo Opera House in Oslo, Norway.
- Construction begins on the 2006 Freedom Tower, on the site of the former World Trade Center.
- 2005 Casa da Música opens in Porto, Portugal, designed by the Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas with Office for Metropolitan Architecture.
- 2004 30 St Mary Axe (also known as " the " and the Swiss Re Building), designed by Gherkin Norman Foster, completed in the City of London.
- 2003 Taipei 101, designed by C.Y. Lee & Partners the worlds tallest building from 2004-2010 is topped out.
- 2002 Simmons Hall dormitory, designed by architect Steven Holl, completed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- 2001 Jewish Museum Berlin designed by Daniel Libeskind opens to the public. - The 2000 Emirates Towers are both completed in Dubai, The London Eye is open in London.
- 1999 Jewish Museum Berlin, designed by Daniel Libeskind is completed.
- 1998 Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, designed by César Pelli is completed. World tallest building 1998-2004.
- 1998 Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art by Steven Holl Architects, opens to the public.
- 1997 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao designed by Frank Gehry.
- 1996 Oscar Niemeyer completes the Niterói Contemporary Art Museum in Brazil.
- 1996 Aronoff Center for Design and Art, University of Cincinnati completed by Peter Eisenman.
- 1995 Steven Holl Architects begin construction of St. Ignatius Chapel at Seattle University.
- Building of the 1994 Basel Signal Box by Herzog and de Meuron
- The 1993 Umeda Sky Building in Osaka City, Japan is completed.
- The 1992 Bank of America Corporate Center in Charlotte, North Carolina is completed.
- 1991 Stansted Airport terminal building in Essex, England, designed by Norman Foster, is completed. - 1990 Frederick Weisman Museum of Art, University of Minnesota completed by Frank Gehry.
Sky tower was built in Auckland.
- 1979 Charles Moore designs the Piazza d'Italia in New Orleans.
- 1978 United Nations City in Vienna, Austria is completed.
- The 1977 Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, designed by Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Gianfranco Franchini, is opened. 
- The 1976 Barbican Estate, designed by Chamberlin, Powell and Bon, opens in the City of London.
- The 1976 CN Tower in Toronto opens as the tallest freestanding structure on land.
- Completion of the 1975 Seoul Tower in Seoul, South Korea.
- National Assembly Building in 1974 Dhaka, Bangladesh is completed.
- The 1973 World Trade Center towers, designed by Minoru Yamasaki, are opened in New York.
- The 1972 Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco, California, designed by William Pereira, is completed.
- 1971 Rothko Chapel in Houston, Texas, designed by Mark Rothko and Philip Johnson is completed. - Construction begins on the 1970 Sears Tower in Chicago, designed by Bruce Graham and Fazlur Khan (of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill).
- 1959 Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum in New York City is finished after 16 years of work on the project.
- The 1958 Seagram Building in New York designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson is completed.
- The 1957 Interbau 57 exposition in Berlin features structures by Alvar Aalto, Walter Gropius and his The Architects' Collaborative (TAC), and an by Le Corbusier. unité
- 1956 Crown Hall at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, designed by Mies van der Rohe, is finished.
- Completion of 1955 Le Corbusier's Notre Dame du Haut chapel at Ronchamp, France and Disneyland (the world's first theme park) in Anaheim, California.
- 1954 Louis Kahn finishes his Yale University Art Gallery in New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
- Completion of the 1953 United Nations Headquarters in New York by a design team headed by Wallace Harrison and Max Abramowitz.
- 1952 Le Corbusier completes his Unité d'Habitation in Marseilles.
- 1951 Mies van der Rohe's Lake Shore Drive Apartments completed in Chicago. - 1950 Eames House completed in Santa Monica, California, designed by Charles and Ray Eames.
- The 1939 1939 World's Fair in New York includes the Finnish Pavilion by Alvar Aalto and the Brazilian Pavilion by Lucio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer.
- Frank Lloyd Wright purchases 800 acres (3.2 km 1938 2) of land 26 miles away from Phoenix, and begins to build Taliesin West, his winter home, in Scottsdale, Arizona, USA
- Wright completes his house 1937 Fallingwater, at Bear Run, Pennsylvania.
- Frank Lloyd Wright designs his monumental inward-looking 1936 Johnson Wax Headquarters in Racine, Wisconsin, USA.
- 1935 Cass Gilbert's United States Supreme Court Building is posthumously finished.
- Frank Lloyd Wright draws up plans for his 1934 , a decentralized urban metropolis. Broadacre City
- The 1933 Bauhaus closes under Nazi pressure.
- The 1932 Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York holds its exhibition on modern architecture, coining the term " International Style."
- The 1931 Empire State Building, designed by Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, becomes the tallest building in the world. - 1930 William Van Alen completes the Chrysler Building, an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, USA.
- 1899 Hector Guimard is commissioned to design the edicules for the Paris Métropolitain, which have become a hallmark of Art Nouveau design.
- Victor Horta designs his own house, now the 1898 Horta Museum.
- 1897 Hendrik Berlage designs his Amsterdam Stock Exchange.
- 1896 Eugène Vallin completes his own house and studio in Nancy ( France), which is the first of many Art Nouveau structures built there by the members of the . École de Nancy
- The 1895 Biltmore Estate, the largest house in the USA, is completed for the Vanderbilt family in Asheville, North Carolina.
- Louis Sullivan builds the 1894 Guaranty Building in Buffalo, NY, USA.
- 1893 Victor Horta builds what is widely considered the first full-fledged Art Nouveau structure, the Hôtel Tassel, in Brussels.
- Modernist architect 1892 Richard Neutra is born. - 1891 Louis Sullivan completes his Wainwright Building in Saint Louis.
Pier Luigi Nervi was born.
- The panopticon-design 1829 Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia, designed by John Havilland, opens.
- Completion of the 1828 Marble Arch in London, designed by John Nash.
- 1827 William Burges, Gothic Revival architect in Britain, is born.
- The 1826 Menai Suspension Bridge over the Menai Strait, in Wales, designed by Thomas Telford, is completed.
- The front and rear porticoes of the White House are added to the building. 1825
- The 1824 Shelbourne Hotel in Dublin, Ireland is completed.
- Work begins on the 1823 British Museum in London, designed by (Sir) Robert Smirke.
- Birth of landscape architect 1822 Frederick Law Olmsted.
- Karl Friedrich Schinkel completeds his 1821 Schauspielhaus in Berlin and Benjamin Latrobe's Baltimore Basilica is completed. - Death of 1820 Benjamin Latrobe.
- Birth of English architect 1819 Horace Jones.
- Birth of American architect 1818 James Renwick, Jr.
- 1817 Dulwich Picture Gallery in London is designed by Sir John Soane as the first purpose-built art gallery.
- 1816 Regent's Bridge, crossing the River Thames in central London, designed by James Walker, is opened.
- 1815 Brighton Pavilion is redesigned by John Nash for the future King George IV.
- British troops burn the 1814 White House in Washington, D.C., gutting it completely.
- Death of 1813 Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart.
- The 1812 Egyptian Hall in London, designed by P. F. Robinson, is completed.
- The 1811 United States Capitol, designed by Benjamin Latrobe, is completed. - 1810 Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange, designed by Jean-François Thomas de Thomon, is completed.
- Birth of city planner 1809 Baron Haussmann.
- Construction begins on the 1808 Paris Bourse, designed by Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart.
- The 1807 Templo de Nuestra Señora del Carmen in Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico is completed.
- 1806 Arc de Triomphe, Paris from Jean Chalgrin commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte.
- The 1805 Ellesmere Canal, designed by Thomas Telford, is completed.
- Completion of the 1804 Government House in the Bahamas.
- The 1803 Raj Bhavan in Kolkata, West Bengal, India is finished.
- The 1802 Temple of Saint Philip Neri in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico is completed.
- Birth of Henri Labrouste. 1801 - The 1800 White House in Washington D.C. is completed by team of client George Washington, planner Pierre L'Enfant, and architect James Hoban.
- Death of French neoclassicist 1799 Étienne-Louis Boullée.
- 1798 Karlsruhe Synagogue, usually regarded as the first building of the Egyptian Revival architecture, built by Friedrich Weinbrenner in Karlsruhe.
- 1797 Ditherington Flax Mill, in Shrewsbury, England, the world's oldest surviving iron-framed building, is completed.
- 1796 Somerset House in London, designed by William Chambers, is completed.
- Birth of English architect 1795 Charles Barry.
- 1794 Hwaseong Fortress in Suwon, Korea, begins.
- 1793 Old East, the oldest public university building in the USA, is erected on the campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
- 1792 Sir John Soane begins work on his house in London, later Sir John Soane's Museum.
- 1791 - 1790
- Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart is born. 1739
- Buckingham Palace built 1735
- Basilica of Superga 1731 in the vicinity of Turin built, and designed by Filippo Juvarra  - 1730
- 1690s Potala Palace is completed in Tibet.
- The city of 1690s Noto, Italy, on Sicily, is devastated by an earthquake (1693), and a rebuilding program begins in the Baroque style.
- Church of 1680s Les Invalides, Paris is built by Jules Hardouin-Mansart.
- The 1670s Royal Greenwich Observatory in London, designed by Christopher Wren is completed (1676).
- 1660s Louis XIV, with the architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart, begins to enlarge the Palace of Versailles (1661).
- Completion of the church 1650s Sant'Agnese in Agone in Rome, designed by Borromini and Carlo Rainaldi.
- Borromini builds the church 1640s Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza in Rome.
- Emperor 1630s Shah Jahan construct Taj Mahal in Agra, India.
- Borromini builds the church 1630s San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome.
- 1620s St. Peter's Basilica is completed in Vatican City (1626).
- Mohammadreza Isfahani builds 1610s Naghsh-i Jahan Square in Isfahan, Iran. - 1600s 33 pol bridge is constructed in Isfahan, Iran.
1st millennium AD 905 -
Aachen Cathedral consecrated (major renovations in the 10th century).
- 900s Akhtala monastery built, intended as a fortress. 848 -
San Miguel de Lillo built in the Austrian pre-romanesque style of Spain.
- 700s Seokguram of Korea is constructed. 605 -
Anji Bridge, China, the world's oldest known open- spandrel segmental stone arch bridge, is completed.
- 600s St. Hripsime Church, Echmiadzin, one of the world's oldest surviving churches, constructed.
- 500s Hagia Sophia built in its present form. Oldest known surviving roof truss in Saint Catherine's Monastery. 495-504 -
Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna.  470 -
Basilica of St. Martin, Tours.  432-40 -
Santa Maria Maggiore and  Santa Sabina in Rome. 
- 400s Mahabalipuram, an ancient port city of south east India, constructed under Mahendravarman I & his son Narasimhavarman I of the Pallava Kingdom, Tamil Nadu, South India. c.330 -
Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, Rome.  325 -
Old St. Peter's Basilica, Rome.  320 - Construction of
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Rome, begun using standards that will be followed in future basilica designs.  315 -
Arch of Constantine in Rome dedicated to the Battle of Milvian Bridge. 312 -
Aula Palatina (Basilica of Constantine) at Trier, the brick audience hall, completed.  307-312 -
Basilica of Maxentius and Catacomb of the  Via Latina in Rome begun.
- 300s Nalanda, an ancient center of higher learning, is built in Gupta Empire in India. 296-306 -
Baths of Diocletian in Rome.  262 -
Arch of Gallienus in Rome completed. 231 -
Dura-Europos church in Syria, a house built c.200 converted into a Christian Church.  224 -
Dura-Europos synagogue one of the oldest synagogues. 211 -
Arch of Drusus in Rome completed. 203 -
Arch of Septimius Severus in Rome completed. 212-16 -
Baths of Caracalla in Rome. 
- 200s 193 - Column of Marcus Aurelius dedicated in
Rome. 134 -
Ponte Sant'Angelo across the Tiber in Rome completed. 118-28 - Pantheon, Rome is completed, an early full dome.
 113 -
Trajan's Column in Rome dedicated. 104-6 -
Alcántara Bridge, a Roman multiple arched bridge over the Tagus River in Spain. 82 -
Arch of Titus in Rome an artifact from the 'Temple Period' and the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora.
- 100s Pantheon, Rome is completed. 70-80 -
Colosseum in Rome built under Emperors Vespasian and Titus. 60-69 -
Domus Aurea in Rome begun. 52 -
Porta Maggiore (Porta Prenestina) in Rome built. A subterranean Neopythagorean basilica nearby also dates to this century. 40 - Lighthouse at
Boulogne built. 3 - Gungnae City of Goguryeo completed.
1st millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
3rd millennium BC
- 4th millennium BC Harappa, the ancient city was built.
5th millennium BC - (5000-3000 BC) Yangshao culture in China.
6th millennium BC - (6000-2000 BC) Emergence of wooden frames in Chinese architecture including the use of mortise and tenon joinery to build wood beamed houses.
7th millennium BC - Çatal Hüyük in Anatolia constructed without streets.
8th millennium BC - Lahuradewa architecture in Ganges plains of India. Early Mehrgarh settlement sites in Indian subcontinent. Earliest town sites with simple residential neighbourhoods in Jarmo, Jericho, and Ain Ghazal on the Levant. 10th millennium BC - Göbekli Tepe in Turkey, an ancient structure believed to be the first place of worship.
Fondazione Renzo Piano. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
Guest, Ivor (1991). Dr. John Radcliffe and His Trust. London: The Radcliffe Trust. p. 149. ISBN 0-9502482-1-5.
^ a b c d e f g h
Calkins, Robert G. (1998). "2, Early Christian Buildings". Medieval Architecture in Western Europe, From A.D. 300 to 1500. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 14-30.
^ a b c d e f
Calkins, Robert G. (1998). "1, Classical Antecedents". Medieval Architecture in Western Europe, From A.D. 300 to 1500. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-13.
^ Norwich, John Julius, ed..
great architecture of the world: from ancient times to the present, with more than 800 diagrams, drawings, and photographs. 2001. 68. ISBN 0306810425
Stonehenge#After the monument .281600 BC on.29