Timeline of Biotechnology
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Timeline of Biotechnology
The historical application of biotechnology throughout time is provided below in order. These discoveries, inventions and modifications are evidence of the evolution of biotechnology since before the common era.
Before Common Era
- 1919 – Károly Ereky, a Hungarian agricultural engineer, first uses the word biotechnology.
- 1928 – Alexander Fleming notices that a certain mould could stop the duplication of bacteria, leading to the first antibiotic: penicillin.
- 1933 – Hybrid corn is commercialized.
- 1942 – Penicillin is mass-produced in microbes for the first time.
- 1950 – The first synthetic antibiotic is created.
- 1951 – Artificial insemination of livestock is accomplished using frozen semen.
- 1952 – L.V. Radushkevich and V.M. Lukyanovich publish clear images of 50 nanometer diameter tubes made of carbon, in the Soviet Journal of Physical Chemistry.
- 1953 – James D. Watson and Francis Crick describe the structure of DNA.
- 1958 – The term bionics is coined by Jack E. Steele.
- 1964 – The first commercial myoelectric arm is developed by the Central Prosthetic Research Institute of the USSR, and distributed by the Hangar Limb Factory of the UK.
- 1972 – The DNA composition of chimpanzees and gorillas is discovered to be 99% similar to that of humans.
- 1973 – Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer perform the first successful recombinant DNA experiment, using bacterial genes.
- 1974 – Scientist invent the first biocement for industrial applications.
- 1975 – Method for producing monoclonal antibodies developed by Köhler and César Milstein.
- 1978 – North Carolina scientists Clyde Hutchison and Marshall Edgell show it is possible to introduce specific mutations at specific sites in a DNA molecule.
- 1980 – The U.S. patent for gene cloning is awarded to Cohen and Boyer.
- 1982 – Humulin, Genentech's human insulin drug produced by genetically engineered bacteria for the treatment of diabetes, is the first biotech drug to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
- 1983 – The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique is conceived.
- 1990 – First federally approved gene therapy treatment is performed successfully on a young girl who suffered from an immune disorder.
- 1994 – The United States Food and Drug Administration approves the first GM food: the "Flavr Savr" tomato.
- 1997 – British scientists, led by Ian Wilmut from the Roslin Institute, report cloning Dolly the sheep using DNA from two adult sheep cells.
- 1999 – Discovery of the gene responsible for developing cystic fibrosis.
- 2000 – Completion of a "rough draft" of the human genome in the Human Genome Project.