Timeline of Historic Inventions
Get Timeline of Historic Inventions essential facts below. View Videos or join the Timeline of Historic Inventions discussion. Add Timeline of Historic Inventions to your Like2do.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Timeline of Historic Inventions

The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions and the people who created the inventions.

Note: Dates for inventions are often controversial. Inventions are often invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a more practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first known working version of the invention is used here.

Earliest inventions

The dates listed in this section refer to the earliest evidence of an invention found and dated by archaeologists (or in a few cases, suggested by indirect evidence). Dates are often approximate and change as more research is done, reported, and seen. Older examples of any given technology are found often. The locations listed are for the site where the earliest solid evidence has been found, but especially for the earlier inventions there is little certainty how close that may be to where the invention took place.

Paleolithic

A few non-invention dates are included in italics, for context.

Neolithic

Note the shift from Ma and ka to BC and AD - 8000 BC is approximately the same as 10 ka.

2nd millennium BC

1st millennium BC

7th century BC

6th century BC

With the Greco-Roman trispastos ("three-pulley-crane"), the simplest ancient crane, a single man tripled the weight he could lift than with his muscular strength alone.[87]

5th century BC

4th century BC

3rd century BC

An illustration depicting the papermaking process in Han Dynasty China.

2nd century BC

The earliest fore-and-aft rigs, spritsails, appeared in the 2nd century BC in the Aegean Sea on small Greek craft.[111] Here a spritsail used on a Roman merchant ship (3rd century AD).
  • 2nd century BC: Paper in Han Dynasty China: Although it is recorded that the Han Dynasty (202 BC - AD 220) court eunuch Cai Lun (born c. 50-121 AD) invented the pulp papermaking process and established the use of new raw materials used in making paper, ancient padding and wrapping paper artifacts dating to the 2nd century BC have been found in China, the oldest example of pulp papermaking being a map from Fangmatan, Gansu.[112]
  • 150 BC Astrolabe invented in the Hellenistic world.

1st century BC

1st millennium AD

1st century

2nd century

3rd century

Schematic of the Roman Hierapolis sawmill. Dated to the 3rd century AD, it is the earliest known machine to incorporate a crank and connecting rod mechanism.[131][132][133]

4th century

5th century

6th century

A Nepali Charkha in action

7th century

9th century

A Mongol bomb thrown against a charging Japanese samurai during the Mongol invasions of Japan after founding the Yuan Dynasty, 1281.

10th century

2nd millennium

11th century

12th century

  • 1119: Mariner's compass (wet compass) in Song Dynasty China: The earliest recorded use of magnetized needle for navigational purposes at sea is found in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks of 1119 (written from 1111 to 1117).[178][180][181][182][183][184][185] The typical Chinese navigational compass was in the form of a magnetic needle floating in a bowl of water.[186] The familiar mariner's dry compass which uses a pivoting needle suspended above a compass-card in a glass box is invented in medieval Europe no later than 1300.[187]

13th century

14th century

15th century

The 15th-century invention of the printing press with movable type by the German Johannes Gutenberg is widely regarded as the most influential event of the modern era.[200]

16th century

17th century

A 1609 title page of the German Relation, the world's first newspaper (first published in 1605)[216][217]

18th century

1700s

1710s

1730s

1740s

1750s

1760s

1770s

1780s

1790s

19th century

1800s

1810s

1820s

1830s

1840s

1850s

1860s

1870s

1880s

1890s

20th century

1900s

1910s

1920s

1930s

1940s

1950s

1960s

1970s

1980s

1990s

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Wong, Kate. "Archaeologists Take Wrong Turn, Find World's Oldest Stone Tools [Update]". Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ Semaw, S.; M. J. Rogers; J. Quade; P. R. Renne; R. F. Butler; M. Domínguez-Rodrigo; D. Stout; W. S. Hart; T. Pickering; S. W. Simpson (2003). "2.6-Million-year-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia". Journal of Human Evolution. 45: 169-177. doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(03)00093-9. PMID 14529651.
  3. ^ De Heinzelin, J; Clark, JD; White, T; Hart, W; Renne, P; Woldegabriel, G; Beyene, Y; Vrba, E (1999). "Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids". Science. 284 (5414): 625-9. doi:10.1126/science.284.5414.625. PMID 10213682.
  4. ^ Toth, Nicholas; Schick, Kathy (2009), "African Origins", in Scarre, Chris, The Human Past: World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies (2nd ed.), London: Thames and Hudson, pp. 67-68
  5. ^ "Invention of cooking drove evolution of the human species, new book argues". harvard.edu. 1 June 2009. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ a b http://discovermagazine.com/2013/may/09-archaeologists-find-earliest-evidence-of-humans-cooking-with-fire "Until the Wonderwerk Cave find, Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, a lakeside site in Israel, was considered to have the oldest generally accepted evidence of human-controlled fire."
  7. ^ a b James, Steven R. (February 1989). "Hominid Use of Fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene: A Review of the Evidence" (PDF). Current Anthropology. University of Chicago Press. 30 (1): 1-26. doi:10.1086/203705. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-12. Retrieved .
  8. ^ http://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/2839 "Anthropologists have yet to find an Acheulian hand axe gripped in a Homo erectus fist but most credit Homo erectus with developing the technology."
  9. ^ Lepre, Christopher J.; Roche, Hélène; Kent, Dennis V.; Harmand, Sonia; Quinn, Rhonda L.; Brugal, Jean-Philippe; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Lenoble, Arnaud; Feibel, Craig S. "An earlier origin for the Acheulian". Nature. 477 (7362): 82-85. Bibcode:2011Natur.477...82L. doi:10.1038/nature10372. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ Goren-Inbar, Naama; Alperson, Nira; Kislev, Mordechai E.; Simchoni, Orit; Melamed, Yoel; Ben-Nun, Adi; Werker, Ella (30 April 2004). "Evidence of Hominin Control of Fire at Gesher Benot Ya`aqov, Israel". Science. 304 (5671): 725-727. Bibcode:2004Sci...304..725G. doi:10.1126/science.1095443. PMID 15118160. Retrieved 2018 – via www.sciencemag.org.
  11. ^ Stiner, Mary C.; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran (2011). "Hearth-side socioeconomics, hunting and paleoecology during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave, Israel". Journal of Human Evolution. 60 (2): 213-33. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.10.006. PMID 21146194.
  12. ^ "BBC News - SCI/TECH - Earliest evidence of art found". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2018.
  13. ^ Kouwenhoven, Arlette P., World's Oldest Spears
  14. ^ Richter, D. and M. Krbetschek. 2015: The age of the Lower Paleolithic occupation at Schöningen. Journal of Human Evolution 89, 46-56.
  15. ^ Perreault, C.; Mathew, S. (2012). "Dating the origin of language using phonemic diversity". PLoS ONE. 7 (4): e35289. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...735289P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035289. PMC 3338724. PMID 22558135.
  16. ^ Mazza, PPA; Martini, F; Sala, B; Magi, M; Colombini, MP; Giachi, G; Landucci, F; Lemorini, C; Modugno, F; Ribechini, E (2006). "A new Palaeolithic discovery: tar-hafted stone tools in a European Mid-Pleistocene bone-bearing bed". Journal of Archaeological Science. 33 (9): 1310. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2006.01.006.
  17. ^ "Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2011. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq234. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "Middle Paleolithic Shell Beads in Israel and Algeria". Science. 2006. Bibcode:2006Sci...312.1785V. doi:10.1126/science.1128139. Retrieved .
  19. ^ Dahl-Jensen, D.; Albert, M. R.; Aldahan, A.; Azuma, N.; Balslev-Clausen, D.; Baumgartner, M.; Berggren, A. -M.; Bigler, M.; Binder, T.; Blunier, T.; Bourgeois, J. C.; Brook, E. J.; Buchardt, S. L.; Buizert, C.; Capron, E.; Chappellaz, J.; Chung, J.; Clausen, H. B.; Cvijanovic, I.; Davies, S. M.; Ditlevsen, P.; Eicher, O.; Fischer, H.; Fisher, D. A.; Fleet, L. G.; Gfeller, G.; Gkinis, V.; Gogineni, S.; Goto-Azuma, K.; et al. (2013). "Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core". Nature. 493 (7433): 489-94. Bibcode:2013Natur.493..489N. doi:10.1038/nature11789. PMID 23344358.
  20. ^ Uniquely Human page 163. Books.google.com. Retrieved .
  21. ^ Yellen, JE; AS Brooks; E Cornelissen; MJ Mehlman; K Stewart (28 April 1995). "A middle stone age worked bone industry from Katanda, Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire". Science. 268 (5210): 553-556. Bibcode:1995Sci...268..553Y. doi:10.1126/science.7725100. PMID 7725100.
  22. ^ Wadley, L; Sievers, C; Bamford, M; Goldberg, P; Berna, F; Miller, C. (2011). "Middle Stone Age Bedding Construction and Settlement Patterns at Sibudu, South Africa". Science. 334 (6061): 1388-1391. Bibcode:2011Sci...334.1388W. doi:10.1126/science.1213317. PMID 22158814.
  23. ^ Backwell, L; Errico, F; Wadley, L. (2008). "Middle Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South Africa". Journal of Archaeological Science. 35: 1566-1580. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2007.11.006.
  24. ^ Jennifer Viegas (31 March 2008). "Early Weapon Evidence Reveals Bloody Past". Discovery News. Archived from the original on 2012-10-15. Retrieved .
  25. ^ "World's oldest known ground-edge stone axe fragments found in WA". abc.net.au. 11 May 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  26. ^ "Prehistoric Japan, New perspectives on insular East Asia", Keiji Imamura, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, ISBN 0-8248-1853-9
  27. ^ It is called a notched bone, illustrated in Fig. 1, 12 "Early evidence of San material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109: 13214-13219. Bibcode:2012PNAS..10913214D. doi:10.1073/pnas.1204213109. PMC 3421171.
  28. ^ Bowler JM, Jones R, Allen H, Thorne AG (1970). "Pleistocene human remains from Australia: a living site and human cremation from Lake Mungo, Western New South Wales". World Archaeol. 2 (1): 39-60. doi:10.1080/00438243.1970.9979463. PMID 16468208.
  29. ^ "Cave Paintings in Indonesia Redraw Picture of Earliest Art". 2014.
  30. ^ K. Wright, The Origins and development of ground stone assemblages in Late Pleistocene Southwest Asia, Paleorient, Vol. 17/1, 1991 http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/paleo_0153-9345_1991_num_17_1_4537
  31. ^ Kvavadze, Eliso; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Jakeli, Nino; Matskevich, Zinovi; Meshveliani, Tengiz (11 September 2009). "30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers". Science. 325 (5946): 1359-1359. Bibcode:2009Sci...325.1359K. doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144. Retrieved 2018 – via www.sciencemag.org.
  32. ^ Svoboda, Ji?í; Králík, Miroslav; ?ulíková, V?ra; Hladilová, ?árka; Novák, Martin; NývltováFi?áková, Miriam; Nývlt, Daniel; Zelinková, Michaela. "Pavlov VI: an Upper Palaeolithic living unit". Antiquity. 83. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ "Centuries-old fabric found in Çatalhöyük". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3.
  35. ^ Conard, Nicholas J.; Malina, Maria; Münzel, Susanne C. (June 26, 2009). "New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany". Nature. 460 (7256): 737-740. Bibcode:2009Natur.460..737C. doi:10.1038/nature08169. PMID 19553935.
  36. ^ Small, Meredith F. (April 2002). "String theory: the tradition of spinning raw fibers dates back 28,000 years (At The Museum)". Natural History. 111.3: 14(2).
  37. ^ Amos, Jonathan (2005-07-25). "Ancient phallus unearthed in cave". BBC News. Retrieved .
  38. ^ "Chinese pottery may be earliest discovered." Associated Press. 2009-06-01
  39. ^ Gregor, Thomas. Anxious Pleasures: The Sexual Lives of an Amazonian People. University Of Chicago Press (1987). p. 106 "Today we know that the bullroarer is a very ancient object, specimens from France (13,000 B.C.) and the Ukraine (17,000 B.C.) dating back well into the Paleolithic period. Moreover, some archeologists, most notable Michael Boyd—notably, Gordon Willey (1971,20) and Michael Boyd (Leisure in the Dreamtime 1999,21) —now admit the bullroarer to the kit-bag of artifacts brought by the very earliest migrants to the Americas."
  40. ^ Briggs, Helen (17 July 2018). "Prehistoric bake-off: Recipe for oldest bread revealed". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2018.
  41. ^ Arranz-Otaegui, Amaia; Gonzalez Carretero, Lara; Ramsey, Monica N.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Richter, Tobias (16 July 2018). "Archaeobotanical evidence reveals the origins of bread 14,400 years ago in northeastern Jordan". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: 201801071. doi:10.1073/pnas.1801071115.
  42. ^ Oxilia, Gregorio; et al. "Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic". Scientific Reports. 5. Bibcode:2015NatSR...512150O. doi:10.1038/srep12150.
  43. ^ "Farming Was So Nice, It Was Invented at Least Twice". sciencemag.org. 4 July 2013. Retrieved 2018.
  44. ^ "The Development of Agriculture". nationalgeographic.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  45. ^ Krebs, Robert E. & Carolyn A. (2003). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions & Discoveries of the Ancient World. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31342-3.
  46. ^ Simmons, Paula; Carol Ekarius (2001). Storey's Guide to Raising Sheep. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing LLC. ISBN 978-1-58017-262-2.
  47. ^ Zhijun, Zhao. "The Middle Yangtze region in China is one place where rice was domesticated: phytolith evidence from the Diaotonghuan Cave, Northern Jiangxi". Antiquity. 72: 885-897. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00087524.
  48. ^ Curry, Andrew. "Gobekli Tepe: The World's First Temple?". smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 2018.
  49. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-18. Retrieved .
  50. ^ McGovern, Patrick E.; Zhang, Juzhong; Tang, Jigen; Zhang, Zhiqing; Hall, Gretchen R.; Moreau, Robert A.; Nuñez, Alberto; Butrym, Eric D.; Richards, Michael P.; Wang, Chen-shan; Cheng, Guangsheng; Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Changsui (21 December 2004). "Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (51): 17593-17598. Bibcode:2004PNAS..10117593M. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407921102. PMC 539767. PMID 15590771. Retrieved 2018 – via www.pnas.org.
  51. ^ Heskel, Dennis L. (1983). "A Model for the Adoption of Metallurgy in the Ancient Middle East". Current Anthropology. 24 (3): 362-366. doi:10.1086/203007.
  52. ^ Piotr Bienkowski; Alan Millard (15 April 2010). Dictionary of the Ancient Near East. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-8122-2115-2.
  53. ^ Rehren, Thilo; Radivojevi?, Miljana; Pernicka, Ernst. "On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe (Radivojevic et al 2010, JAS 37)". academia.edu. Retrieved 2018.
  54. ^ Li, Li (2011). China's Cultural Relics (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 139-140. ISBN 9780521186568.
  55. ^ Loewe (1968), 170-171
  56. ^ Deng, Gang. (1997). Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development, c. 2100 B.C.-1900 A.D. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29212-4, p. 22.
  57. ^ Miriam T. Stark (15 April 2008). Archaeology of Asia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4051-5303-4. Retrieved 2012.
  58. ^ Muhly, J.D. "The Beginnings of Metallurgy in the Old World". In Maddin 1988
  59. ^ Nunn, John; Rowling, John (2001). "The Eye of the Needle in Predynastic Egypt". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 87: 171. doi:10.2307/3822378. JSTOR 3822378.
  60. ^ Jared Diamond "The Third Chimpanzee"
  61. ^ D. T. Potts (2012). A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. p. 285.
  62. ^ Anthony, David A. (2007). The horse, the wheel, and language: how Bronze-Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-691-05887-3.
  63. ^ Mary Schoeser (28 May 2007). Silk. Yale University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-300-11741-7.
  64. ^ Matossian Shaping World History p. 43
  65. ^ "What We Theorize - When and Where Domestication Occurred". International Museum of the Horse. Retrieved .
  66. ^ "Horsey-aeology, Binary Black Holes, Tracking Red Tides, Fish Re-evolution, Walk Like a Man, Fact or Fiction". Quirks and Quarks Podcast with Bob Macdonald. CBC Radio. 2009-03-07. Retrieved .
  67. ^ John Coleman Darnell (2006). "The Wadi of the Horus Qa-a: A Tableau of Royal Ritual Power in the Theban Western Desert". Yale. Archived from the original on 2011-02-01. Retrieved .
  68. ^ The sea-craft of prehistory, p76, by Paul Johnstone, Routledge, 1980
  69. ^ Karen Radner; Eleanor Robson (22 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture. Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-19-955730-1.
  70. ^ Per Enghag (11 March 2008). Encyclopedia of the Elements. John Wiley & Sons. p. 146. ISBN 978-3-527-61234-5.
  71. ^ Steven Roger Fischer (4 April 2004). History of Writing. Reaktion Books. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-86189-167-9.
  72. ^ Paul Johnson (3 November 1999). The Civilization Of Ancient Egypt. HarperCollins. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-06-019434-5.
  73. ^ Cierny, J.; Weisgerber, G. (2003). "The "Bronze Age tin mines in Central Asia". In Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F. The Problem of Early Tin. Oxford: Archaeopress. pp. 23-31. ISBN 1-84171-564-6.
  74. ^ Vaux, William Sandys Wright (1850-01-01). Nineveh and Persepolis: An Historical Sketch of Ancient Assyria and Persia, with an Account of the Recent Researches in Those Countries. A. Hall, Virtue, & Company.
  75. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). archive.org. 24 September 2016. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  76. ^ Boyle, Alan (15 April 2013). "4,500-year-old harbor structures and papyrus texts unearthed in Egypt". NBC.
  77. ^ Marouard, Gregory; Tallet, Pierre (2012). "Wadi al-Jarf - An early pharaonic harbour on the Red Sea coast". Egyptian Archaeology. 40: 40-43. Retrieved 2013.
  78. ^ Kilmer & Civil 1986,[page needed].
  79. ^ David S. Anthony, The Horse, The Wheel and Language: How bronze age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world (2007), pp. 397-405.
  80. ^ "About Glass Inventors - Who Invented Glass". www.historyofglass.com. Retrieved 2018.
  81. ^ "World's Greatest Inventions". whoinvented.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2018.
  82. ^ History Channel, Where Did It Come From? Episode: "Ancient China: Agriculture"
  83. ^ http://www.michaelppowers.com/prosperity/coins.htm.
  84. ^ http://inventors.about.com/od/famousinventions/fl/Who-Invented-Scissors.htm.
  85. ^ "What is a Lathe Machine? History, Parts, and Operation". Brighthub Engineering. Retrieved 2018.
  86. ^ a b Everwondered? (31 May 2008). "World's Greatest Inventions: Inventions: 1st millennium BC (1000 BC to 1 BC)". whoinvented.blogspot.com.au. Retrieved 2018.
  87. ^ Hans-Liudger, Dienel; Wolfgang, Meighörner (1997): "Der Tretradkran", Technikgeschichte series, 2nd ed., Deutsches Museum, München, p. 13
  88. ^ Curtis 2008, p. 375.
  89. ^ Frankel, Rafael (2003): "The Olynthus Mill, Its Origin, and Diffusion: Typology and Distribution", American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 107, No. 1, pp. 1-21 (17-19)
  90. ^ Ritti, Tullia; Grewe, Klaus; Kessener, Paul (2007): "A Relief of a Water-powered Stone Saw Mill on a Sarcophagus at Hierapolis and its Implications", Journal of Roman Archaeology, Vol. 20, pp. 138-163 (159)
  91. ^ Coulton, J. J. (1974): "Lifting in Early Greek Architecture", The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 94, pp. 1-19 (7, 16)
  92. ^ a b Wagner (2001), 7, 36-37, 64-68. 335.
  93. ^ Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006), 30.
  94. ^ Pigott (1999), 177.
  95. ^ Wagner (1993), 153, 157-158.
  96. ^ a b Campbell, Duncan B. (2003): Greek and Roman Artillery 399 BC-AD 363, Osprey Publishing, Oxford, ISBN 978-1-84176-634-8, pp. 3ff.
  97. ^ a b Schellenberg, Hans Michael (2006): "Diodor von Sizilien 14,42,1 und die Erfindung der Artillerie im Mittelmeerraum", Frankfurter Elektronische Rundschau zur Altertumskunde, Vol. 3, pp. 14-23 (18f.)
  98. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan; Donald J. Kagay; Theresa M. Vann (1998). On the Social Origins of Medieval Institutions: Essays in Honor of Joseph F. O'Callaghan. BRILL. p. 179. ISBN 978-90-04-11096-0. Developed in China between the fifth and fourth centuries BC, it reached the Mediterranean by the sixth century AD
  99. ^ Beckmann, Martin (2002): "The 'Columnae Coc(h)lides' of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius", Phoenix, Vol. 56, No. 3/4, pp. 348-357 (354)
  100. ^ Ruggeri, Stefania (2006): "Selinunt", Edizioni Affinità Elettive, Messina, ISBN 88-8405-079-0, p. 77
  101. ^ Curtis 2008, p. 376.
  102. ^ de Vos 2011, p. 178.
  103. ^ "Archimedes' Screw". Kenyon. Retrieved 2018.
  104. ^ Moore, Frank Gardner (1950): "Three Canal Projects, Roman and Byzantine", American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 97-111 (99-101)
  105. ^ Froriep, Siegfried (1986): "Ein Wasserweg in Bithynien. Bemühungen der Römer, Byzantiner und Osmanen", Antike Welt, 2nd Special Edition, pp. 39-50 (46)
  106. ^ Schörner, Hadwiga (2000): "Künstliche Schiffahrtskanäle in der Antike. Der sogenannte antike Suez-Kanal", Skyllis, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 28-43 (33-35, 39)
  107. ^ Wilson, Andrew (2002): "Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy", The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 92, pp. 1-32 (16) JSTOR 3184857
  108. ^ Oleson, John Peter (2000): "Water-Lifting", in: Wikander, Örjan: "Handbook of Ancient Water Technology", Technology and Change in History, Vol. 2, Brill, Leiden, ISBN 90-04-11123-9, pp. 217-302 (233)
  109. ^ Carter, Ernest Frank (1967). Dictionary of Inventions and Discoveries. Philosophical Library. p. 74.
  110. ^ Pigott (1999), 183-184.
  111. ^ Casson, Lionel (1995): "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World", Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-5130-8, pp. 243-245
  112. ^ Buisseret (1998), 12.
  113. ^ O'Connor, Colin: Roman Bridges, Cambridge University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-521-39326-4, p. 171
  114. ^ Galliazzo, Vittorio (1995): "I ponti romani", Vol. 1, Edizioni Canova, Treviso, ISBN 88-85066-66-6, pp. 429-437
  115. ^ Smith, Norman (1971): "A History of Dams", Peter Davies, London, ISBN 978-0-432-15090-0, pp. 25-49 (33-35)
  116. ^ Schnitter, Niklaus (1978): "Römische Talsperren", Antike Welt, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 25-32 (31f.)
  117. ^ Schnitter, Niklaus (1987): "Verzeichnis geschichtlicher Talsperren bis Ende des 17. Jahrhunderts", in: Garbrecht, Günther (ed.): Historische Talsperren, Verlag Konrad Wittwer, Stuttgart, Vol. 1, ISBN 3-87919-145-X, pp. 9-20 (12)
  118. ^ Schnitter, Niklaus (1987): "Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Bogenstaumauer", Garbrecht, Günther (ed.): Historische Talsperren, Vol. 1, Verlag Konrad Wittwer, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-87919-145-X, pp. 75-96 (80)
  119. ^ Hodge, A. Trevor (2000): "Reservoirs and Dams", in: Wikander, Örjan: Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Technology and Change in History, Vol. 2, Brill, Leiden, ISBN 90-04-11123-9, pp. 331-339 (332, fn. 2)
  120. ^ Wikander, Örjan (2000): "The Water-Mill" in: Wikander, Örjan (ed.): Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Technology and Change in History, Vol. 2, Brill, Leiden, ISBN 90-04-11123-9, pp. 371-400 (396f.)
  121. ^ Donners, K.; Waelkens, M.; Deckers, J. (2002): "Water Mills in the Area of Sagalassos: A Disappearing Ancient Technology", Anatolian Studies, Vol. 52, pp. 1-17 (11)
  122. ^ Wilson, Andrew (2002): "Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy", The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 92, pp. 1-32 (7f.)
  123. ^ Wikander, Örjan (1985): "Archaeological Evidence for Early Water-Mills. An Interim Report", History of Technology, Vol. 10, pp. 151-179 (160)
  124. ^ Wikander, Örjan (2000): "The Water-Mill" in: Wikander, Örjan (ed.): Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Technology and Change in History, Vol. 2, Brill, Leiden, ISBN 90-04-11123-9, pp. 371-400 (396)
  125. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 184.
  126. ^ Davies, Oliver: Roman Mines in Europe, Oxford (1935)
  127. ^ "turbine." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 18 July 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-45691>.
  128. ^ Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 4, Physics and Physical Technology, pt. 2, Mechanical Engineering (Cambridge, 1965), p. 265
  129. ^ Sleeswyk AW, Sivin N (1983). "Dragons and toads: the Chinese seismoscope of BC. 132". Chinese Science. 6: 1-19.
  130. ^ Needham, Joseph (1959). Science and Civilization in China, Volume 3: Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 626-635.
  131. ^ a b Ritti, Tullia; Grewe, Klaus; Kessener, Paul (2007): "A Relief of a Water-powered Stone Saw Mill on a Sarcophagus at Hierapolis and its Implications", Journal of Roman Archaeology, Vol. 20, pp. 138-163 (140, 161)
  132. ^ a b Grewe, Klaus (2009): "Die Reliefdarstellung einer antiken Steinsägemaschine aus Hierapolis in Phrygien und ihre Bedeutung für die Technikgeschichte. Internationale Konferenz 13.-16. Juni 2007 in Istanbul" Archived 2011-05-11 at the Wayback Machine., in: Bachmann, Martin (ed.): Bautechnik im antiken und vorantiken Kleinasien, Byzas, Vol. 9, Ege Yay?nlar?/Zero Prod. Ltd., Istanbul, ISBN 978-975-8072-23-1, pp. 429-454 (429)
  133. ^ a b Grewe, Klaus (2010): "La máquina romana de serrar piedras. La representación en bajorrelieve de una sierra de piedras de la antigüedad, en Hierápolis de Frigia y su relevancia para la historia técnica (translation by Miguel Ordóñez)", in: Las técnicas y las construcciones de la Ingeniería Romana, V Congreso de las Obras Públicas Romanas, pp. 381-401
  134. ^ Hsü, Immanuel C. Y. (1970). The Rise of Modern China. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 830. ISBN 0-19-501240-2.
  135. ^ Wilson, Andrew (1995): "Water-Power in North Africa and the Development of the Horizontal Water-Wheel", Journal of Roman Archaeology, Vol. 8, pp. 499-510 (507f.)
  136. ^ Wikander, Örjan (2000): "The Water-Mill" in: Wikander, Örjan (ed.): Handbook of Ancient Water Technology, Technology and Change in History, Vol. 2, Brill, Leiden, ISBN 90-04-11123-9, pp. 371-400 (377)
  137. ^ Donners, K.; Waelkens, M.; Deckers, J. (2002): "Water Mills in the Area of Sagalassos: A Disappearing Ancient Technology", Anatolian Studies, Vol. 52, pp. 1-17 (13)
  138. ^ Hucker (1975), 206.
  139. ^ Ronan (1994), 41.
  140. ^ "ASTM International - Standards Worldwide". www.astm.org. Retrieved 2018.
  141. ^ Lee, Silkroad Foundation, Adela C.Y. "The stirrup and its effect on chinese military history". www.silk-road.com. Retrieved 2018.
  142. ^ "The stirrup - history of Chinese science." UNESCO Courier, October, 1988
  143. ^ "The invention and influences of stirrup" Archived 2008-12-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  144. ^ Hobson, John M. The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge University Press,2004, p. 103 ISBN 978-0-521-54724-6, ISBN 0-521-54724-5
  145. ^ De Rebus Bellicis (anon.), chapter XVII, text edited by Robert Ireland, in: BAR International Series 63, part 2, p. 34
  146. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 28.
  147. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 322.
  148. ^ Galliazzo, Vittorio (1995): "I ponti romani", Vol. 1, Edizioni Canova, Treviso, ISBN 88-85066-66-6, p. 92
  149. ^ Warren, John (1991): "Creswell's Use of the Theory of Dating by the Acuteness of the Pointed Arches in Early Muslim Architecture", Muqarnas, Vol. 8, pp. 59-65 (61-63)
  150. ^ Smith, C. Wayne; Cothren, J. Tom (1999). Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. 4. John Wiley & Sons. pp. viii. ISBN 978-0471180456. The first improvement in spinning technology was the spinning wheel, which was invented in India between 500 and 1000 A.D.
  151. ^ Heinle, Erwin; Schlaich, Jörg (1996): "Kuppeln aller Zeiten, aller Kulturen", Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-421-03062-6, pp. 30-32
  152. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 123.
  153. ^ Hunter (1978), 207.
  154. ^ Pryor & Jeffreys 2006, pp. 607-609
  155. ^ Theophanes & Turtledove 1982, p. 52
  156. ^ Roland 1992, p. 657; Pryor & Jeffreys 2006, p. 608
  157. ^ Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006), 156.
  158. ^ Bowman (2000), 105.
  159. ^ Gernet (1962), 80.
  160. ^ Wood (1999), 49.
  161. ^ Jack Kelly Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, and Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World, Perseus Books Group: 2005, ISBN 0465037224, 9780465037223: pp. 2-5
  162. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 8-9, 80-82.
  163. ^ Needham (1987), Volume 5, Part 7, 70-73, 120-124.
  164. ^ Gernet (1996), 311.
  165. ^ Day & McNeil (1996), 785.
  166. ^ a b "9 World Changing Inventions from the Middle East". thaqafamagazine.com. 5 December 2014. Retrieved 2018.
  167. ^ a b Bourbaki (1998), page 46
  168. ^ Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2007). algebra
  169. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 7, 224-225, 232-233, 241-244.
  170. ^ Helaine Selin (1 January 1997). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer. p. 389. ISBN 978-0-7923-4066-9. Retrieved 2013.
  171. ^ Crosby, Alfred W. (2002), Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-79158-8
  172. ^ Gernet (1962), 186.
  173. ^ Levathes, Louise (1994). When China Ruled the Seas. Oxford University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-19-511207-8.
  174. ^ "KryssTal: Inventions (1 AD to 1,000 AD.)". www.krysstal.com. Retrieved 2018.
  175. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 111.
  176. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 201-202.
  177. ^ Gernet (1996), 335.
  178. ^ a b Bowman (2000), 599.
  179. ^ Day & McNeil (1996), 70.
  180. ^ Gernet (1962), 77.
  181. ^ Sivin (1995), III, 21-22.
  182. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 1, 279.
  183. ^ Elisseeff (2000), 296.
  184. ^ Gernet (1996), 328.
  185. ^ Day & McNeil (1996), 636.
  186. ^ Kreutz, p. 373
  187. ^ Frederic C. Lane, "The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass," The American Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 3. (Apr., 1963), p.615ff.
  188. ^ "A Brief History of Rocketry". Solarviews.com. Retrieved .
  189. ^ Whitrow, G. J. (26 March 1989). "Time in History: Views of Time from Prehistory to the Present Day". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2018 – via Google Books.
  190. ^ Partington, James Riddick (1999), A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 203, ISBN 0-8018-5954-9
  191. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 7, 175-176, 192.
  192. ^ Vincent Ilardi, Renaissance Vision from Spectacles to Telescopes (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Philosophical Society, 2007), page 5.
  193. ^ Peter Connolly (1 November 1998). The Hutchinson Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Warfare. Taylor & Francis. p. 356. ISBN 978-1-57958-116-9.
  194. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 7, 170-174.
  195. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 7, 171.
  196. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 7, 293-294.
  197. ^ Gwei-Djen, Lu; Joseph Needham; Phan Chi-Hsing (July 1988). "The Oldest Representation of a Bombard". Technology and Culture. Johns Hopkins University Press. 29 (3): 594-605. doi:10.2307/3105275. JSTOR 3105275.
  198. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (20 January 2012). "Pirate of the Far East: 811-1639". Bloomsbury Publishing. Retrieved 2018 – via Google Books.
  199. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 5, Part 7, 203-205.
  200. ^ See People of the Millennium for an overview of the wide acclaim. In 1999, the A&E Network ranked Gutenberg no. 1 on their "People of the Millennium" countdown. In 1997, Time-Life magazine picked Gutenberg's invention as the most important of the second millennium Archived 2010-03-10 at the Wayback Machine.; the same did four prominent US journalists in their 1998 resume 1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking The Men and Women Who Shaped The Millennium. The Johann Gutenberg entry of the Catholic Encyclopedia describes his invention as having made a practically unparalleled cultural impact in the Christian era.
  201. ^ a b White, Lynn Jr. (1966). Medieval Technology and Social Change. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-500266-0., p.126-127
  202. ^ White, Lynn (1962): "Medieval Technology and Social Change", At the Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 112
  203. ^ Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998. (pp 58-69) ISBN 0-471-29198-6
  204. ^ " ?". ? (in Korean). . Retrieved 2017.
  205. ^ Baek, Seokgi. Woongjin Wi-in Jeon-gi 11: Jang Yeong-sil. Woongjin Publishing. p. 101.
  206. ^ Chun, Youngsin; Jeon, Sang-woon. Chugugi, Supyo, and Punggi: Meteorological instruments of the 15th century in Korea (PDF). Meteorological Research Institute, Seoul, The Republic of Korea. Retrieved 2017.
  207. ^ Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 1. C. Knight. 1833. pp. 373-374. Retrieved 2016.
  208. ^ "harquebus weapon". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2016.
  209. ^ Stimson, Alan (1985): "The Mariner's Astrolabe. A Survey of 48 Surviving Examples", UC Biblioteca Geral, Coimbra, p. 576
  210. ^ Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y., Taqi ad-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering, with an offset copy of MS Chester Beatty No. 5232, Institute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo, 1976, pp. 38-42
  211. ^ Sarton, George (1946): "Floating Docks in the Sixteenth Century", Isis, Vol. 36, No. 3/4, pp. 153-154 (153f.)
  212. ^ "Korean monk claims to have found world's oldest newspaper". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2018.
  213. ^ " ...1577? ? '' ". naver.com. Retrieved 2018.
  214. ^ "Is the World's First Newspaper...Korean? - ké radar". koreaexpose.com. 18 April 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  215. ^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "William Lee English inventor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017.
  216. ^ a b World Association of Newspapers: "Newspapers: 400 Years Young!" Archived 2010-03-10 at the Wayback Machine.
  217. ^ a b Weber, Johannes (2006): "Strassburg, 1605: The Origins of the Newspaper in Europe", German History, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 387-412 (396f.)
  218. ^ David Macaulay, The Way Things Work Now, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt - 2016, page 383
  219. ^ Michelle Selinger, Teaching Mathematics (1994), p. 142.
  220. ^ "The Galileo Project". Galileo.rice.edu. Retrieved 2012.
  221. ^ "The Invention of the Barometer". Islandnet.com. Retrieved .
  222. ^ Thurston, pp 25
  223. ^ McNeil, Ian (1990). An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-14792-1.
  224. ^ Lord, John (1903). Memoir of John Kay, of Bury: Inventory of the Fly-Shuttle. Rochdale: J. Clegg.
  225. ^ Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998. p 146 ISBN 0-471-29198-6
  226. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-02-07. Retrieved .
  227. ^ Andreas Luch (2009). Molecular, clinical and environmental toxicology. Springer. p. 20. ISBN 3-7643-8335-6.
  228. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-15. Retrieved .
  229. ^ Izuo, M (2004). "Medical history: Seishu Hanaoka and his success in breast cancer surgery under general anesthesia two hundred years ago". Breast Cancer. Tokyo, Japan. 11 (4): 319-324. doi:10.1007/bf02968037. PMID 15604985.
  230. ^ R. Sier (1999)
  231. ^ Thomson, Ross (2009). Structures of Change in the Mechanical Age: Technological Invention in the United States 1790-1865. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9141-0.
  232. ^ Hounshell 1984, p. 35
  233. ^ Halacy, Daniel Stephen (1970). Charles Babbage, Father of the Computer. Crowell-Collier Press. ISBN 0-02-741370-5.
  234. ^ Flatnes, Oyvind. From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms. Crowood Press, 2013, pp. 125-130. ISBN 978-1847975935
  235. ^ "John Walker's Friction Light". BBC. Retrieved .
  236. ^ Steven Roberts. "Distant Writing - Bain".
  237. ^ Goodwin, Jason OTIS GIVING RISE TO THE MODERN CITY, Chicago, 2001: Ivan R. Dee, Publisher, pp. 5-21
  238. ^ "An Act to render valid a Patent heretofore granted to James Harrison for Manufacturing Ice" (PDF). Flinders University, Adelaide.
  239. ^ Deng, Yuliang. "CARBON FIBER ELECTRONIC INTERCONNECTS".
  240. ^ M. Cobb, Harold (2010). "Chapter 2: The Early Discoveries". The History of Stainless Steel (illustrated ed.). ASM International. p. 11. ISBN 1615030115. Retrieved 2017.
  241. ^ Charles R. Geisst (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of American Business History. Infobase Publishing. p. 425. ISBN 978-1-4381-0987-9.
  242. ^ "The History of the Edison Cylinder Phonograph". Library of Congress.
  243. ^ Quick, D. (1970). "A History Of Closed Circuit Oxygen Underwater Breathing Apparatus". Royal Australian Navy, School of Underwater Medicine. RANSUM-1-70. Retrieved .
  244. ^ Friedel, Robert, and Paul Israel. 1986. Edison's electric light: biography of an invention. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. pages 115-117
  245. ^ Kenneth E. Hendrickson III, The Encyclopedia of the Industrial Revolution in World History, Volume 3, Rowman & Littlefield - 2014, page 564
  246. ^ Maury Klein, The Power Makers: Steam, Electricity, and the Men Who Invented Modern America, Bloomsbury Publishing USA - 2010, Chapter 9 - The Cowbird, The Plugger, and the Dreamer
  247. ^ David O. Whitten, Bessie Emrick Whitten, Handbook of American Business History: Manufacturing, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1990, pages 315-316
  248. ^ "Beginnings of submerged arc welding" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04.
  249. ^ "Bicycle Association leads birthday celebrations for JK Starley, creator of the Safety bicycle". bicycleassociation.org. Bicycle Association. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  250. ^ The Britannica Guide to Inventions That Changed the Modern World. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-61530-064-8.
  251. ^ DRP's patent No. 37435 Archived 2012-02-04 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF, 561 kB, German)
  252. ^ Great Britain Patent No. 15630, 30 October 2008
  253. ^ Sneader W (2005). "Chapter 8: Systematic medicine". Drug discovery: a history. Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 74-87. ISBN 978-0-471-89980-8. Retrieved .
  254. ^ von Pechmann, H. (1898). "Ueber Diazomethan und Nitrosoacylamine". Berichte der Deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin. 31: 2640-2646. page 2643: Erwähnt sei noch, dass aus einer ätherischen Diazomethanlösung sich beim Stehen manchmal minimale Quantitäten eines weissen, flockigen, aus Chloroform krystallisirenden Körpers abscheiden; ... (It should be mentioned that from an ether solution of diazomethane, upon standing, sometimes small quantities of a white, flakey substance, which can be crystallized from chloroform, precipitate; ... )
  255. ^ Gantz, Carroll (Sep 21, 2012). The Vacuum Cleaner: A History. McFarland. p. 49
  256. ^ Quigley, Carroll (1966). Tragedy And Hope. New York: MacMillan. p. 232.
  257. ^ Coulthard-Clark, Christopher D., Australian Dictionary of Biography, online edition, http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A080298b.htm, retrieved on 26 August 2008
  258. ^ Marrison, Warren (1948). "The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock". Bell System Technical Journal. AT&T. 27 (3): 510-588. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01343.x. Archived from the original on 2007-05-13.
  259. ^ "History - Frank Whittle (1907-1996)". BBC. Retrieved .
  260. ^ Frank Whittle, "Improvements relating to the propulsion of aircraft and other vehicles," British patent no. 347,206 (filed: 16 January 1930). Available on-line at: http://v3.espacenet.com/origdoc?DB=EPODOC&IDX=GB347206&F=0&QPN=GB347206 .
  261. ^ "Wallace Hume Carothers". Science History Institute. Retrieved 2018.
  262. ^ Bellis, Mary. "The History of Polyester". About.com. Retrieved 2017.
  263. ^ King, George E (2012), Hydraulic fracturing 101 (PDF), Society of Petroleum Engineers, Paper 152596
  264. ^ Smil, pp. 97-98.
  265. ^ "The Float Process". pilkington.com. Plinkington. Retrieved 2017.
  266. ^ Experimental Breeder Reactor 1 factsheet, Idaho National Laboratory
  267. ^ Fifty years ago in December: Atomic reactor EBR-I produced first electricity American Nuclear Society Nuclear news, November 2001
  268. ^ "IBM 350 disk storage unit". IBM. Retrieved 2017.
  269. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-05-06. Retrieved .
  270. ^ "The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science, 332(6025), 60-65; free access to the article through here martinhilbert.net/WorldInfoCapacity.html
  271. ^ EP 689208  "Method for block oriented addressing" - for block layouts see columns 1 and 2
  272. ^ "Our Story". 3D Systems. Retrieved 2018.
  273. ^ "Tim Berners Lee - Time 100 People of the Century". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 2010. He wove the World Wide Web and created a mass medium for the 21st century. The World Wide Web is Berners-Lee's alone. He designed it. He loosed it on the world. And he more than anyone else has fought to keep it open, nonproprietary and free. .
  274. ^ Berners-Lee, Tim. "Pre-W3C Web and Internet Background". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 2009.

References

  • Bourbaki, Nicolas (1998). Elements of the History of Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-64767-8.
  • Bowman, John S. (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11004-9.
  • Buisseret, David. (1998). Envisioning the City: Six Studies in Urban Cartography. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-07993-7.
  • Curtis, Robert I. (2008). "Food Processing and Preparation". In Oleson, John Peter. The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518731-1.
  • Day, Lance and Ian McNeil. (1996). Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06042-7.
  • de Vos, Mariette (2011). "The Rural Landscape of Thugga: Farms, Presses, Mills, and Transport". In Bowman, Alan; Wilson, Andrew. The Roman Agricultural Economy: Organization, Investment, and Production. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966572-3.
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (1999). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66991-X (paperback).
  • Ebrey, Walthall, Palais, (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Elisseeff, Vadime. (2000). The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-57181-222-9.
  • Hucker, Charles O. (1975). China's Imperial Past: An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture. Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University. ISBN 0-8018-4595-5.
  • Hunter, Dard (1978). Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft. Mineola: Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-23619-6.
  • Gernet, Jacques (1962). Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276. Translated by H.M. Wright. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0720-0.
  • Gernet, Jacques. (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization. Translated by J.R. Foster and Charles Hartman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49781-7.
  • Kreutz, Barbara M. (1973) "Mediterranean Contributions to the Medieval Mariner's Compass", Technology and Culture, 14 (3: July), p. 367-383
  • Lo, Andrew. "The Game of Leaves: An Inquiry into the Origin of Chinese Playing Cards," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 63, No. 3 (2000): 389-406.
  • Loewe, Michael. (1968). Everyday Life in Early Imperial China during the Han Period 202 BC-AD 220. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd.; New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
  • Needham, Joseph, Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.,1986 ISBN 0-521-07060-0
  • Needham, Joseph (1962). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology; Part 1, Physics. Cambridge University Press., reprinted Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. (1986)
  • Needham, Joseph and Tsien Tsuen-Hsuin. (1985). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 1, Paper and Printing. Cambridge University Press., reprinted Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. (1986)
  • Needham, Joseph. (1987). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology; the Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge University Press.
  • Pigott, Vincent C. (1999). The Archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. ISBN 0-924171-34-0.
  • Ronan, Colin A. (1994). The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-32995-7.
  • Sivin, Nathan (1995). Science in Ancient China: Researches and Reflections. Brookfield, Vermont: VARIORUM, Ashgate Publishing.
  • Stark, Miriam T. (2005). Archaeology of Asia. Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub. ISBN 1-4051-0213-6.
  • Wagner, Donald B. (1993). Iron and Steel in Ancient China: Second Impression, With Corrections. Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09632-9.
  • Wagner, Donald B. (2001). The State and the Iron Industry in Han China. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Publishing. ISBN 87-87062-83-6.
  • Wang, Zhongshu. (1982). Han Civilization. Translated by K.C. Chang and Collaborators. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02723-0.
  • Wood, Nigel. (1999). Chinese Glazes: Their Origins, Chemistry, and Recreation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3476-6.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Timeline_of_historic_inventions
 



 

Top US Cities

Like2do.com was developed using defaultLogic.com's knowledge management platform. It allows users to manage learning and research. Visit defaultLogic's other partner sites below:
PopFlock.com : Music Genres | Musicians | Musical Instruments | Music Industry