Timeline of Materials Technology
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Timeline of Materials Technology

Major innovations in materials technology


1st millennium

  • 3rd century - Cast iron widely used in Han Dynasty China
  • 300 - Greek alchemist Zomius, summarizing the work of Egyptian alchemists, describes arsenic and lead acetate[1]
  • 4th century - Iron pillar of Delhi is the oldest surviving example of corrosion-resistant steel
  • 671 - Kallinikos of Byzantium invents a missile weapon made of sulfur, resin, rocksalt, and petroleum that can set targets on fire, called Greek fire[1]
  • 720 - Abu Masa Dshaffar discovers sulfuric acid, nitric acid, aqua regia, and silver nitrate[1]
  • 750 - Geber, an Arabian alchemist, describes the preparation of aluminum chloride, white lead, nitric acid, and acetic acid[1]
  • 8th century - Porcelain is invented in Tang Dynasty China
  • 8th century - Tin-glazing of ceramics invented by Arabic chemists and potters in Basra, Iraq[2]:1
  • 9th century - Stonepaste ceramics invented in Iraq[2]:5
  • 900 - Al-razi, known as Rhazes, a Persian physician and alchemist, describes the preparation of plaster of Paris and metallic antimony[1]
  • 9th century - Lustreware appears in Mesopotamia[3]:86-87

2nd millennium

18th century

19th century

20th century

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Volume Library 1. The Southwestern Company. 2009.
  2. ^ a b Mason, Robert B. (1995). "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Brill Academic Publishers. XII. doi:10.2307/1523219. ISBN 90-04-10314-7.
  3. ^ Emmanuel Cooper (2000). Ten thousand years of pottery (4th ed.). University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3554-1.

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