Timeline of Rocket and Missile Technology
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Timeline of Rocket and Missile Technology
A depiction of the "long serpent" rocket launcher from the 11th century book
. The holes in the frame are designed to keep the fire arrows separate.
This article gives a concise
timeline of rocket and missile technology
17th century-19th century 1633 -
Lagâri Hasan Çelebi launched a 7-winged rocket using 50 okka (140 lbs) of gunpowder from Sarayburnu, the point below Topkap? Palace in Istanbul.  1650 -
Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima ("Great Art of Artillery, the First Part") is printed in Amsterdam, about a year before the death of its author, Kazimierz Siemienowicz. 1664 - A "space rocket" is imagined as a future technology to be studied in France and its drawing is ordered by
French finance minister Colbert; designed by Le Brun on a Gobelins tapestry (see:  French space program) 1798 -
Tipu Sultan, the King of the state of Mysore in India, develops and uses iron rockets against the British Army (see Mysorean rockets). 1801 - The British Army develops the
Congreve rocket based on weapons used against them by Tipu Sultan. 1806 - Claude Ruggieri, an Italian living in France, launched animals on rockets and recovered them using parachutes. He was prevented from launching a child by police.
 1813 - "A Treatise on the Motion of Rockets" by
William Moore - first appearance of the rocket equation 1818 -
Henry Trengrouse demonstrates his rocket apparatus for projecting a lifeline from a wrecked ship to the shore, later widely adopted 1844 -
William Hale invents the spin-stabilized rocket 1861 -
William Leitch publishes an essay "A Journey Through Space" (later published in his book God's Glory in the Heavens (1862)), introducing the concept of using rockets to propel a vehicle carrying people into space, to visit the Moon and other planets. 1865 - Jules Verne publishes as a humorous science fantasy story about a From the Earth to the Moon space gun launching a manned spacecraft equipped with rockets for landing on the Moon, but eventually used for another orbital maneuver.
20th century 1902 - French cinema pioneer
Georges Méliès directs , the first film about space travel. A Trip to the Moon 1903 -
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky begins a series of papers discussing the use of rocketry to reach outer space, space suits, and colonization of the solar system. Two key points discussed in his works are liquid fuels and staging. 1913 - Without knowing the work of Russian mathematician
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, French engineer Robert Esnault-Pelterie derived the equations for space flight, produced a paper that presented the rocket equation and calculated the energies required to reach the Moon and nearby planets.  1922 -
Hermann Oberth publishes his scientific work about rocketry and space exploration: Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen ("By Rocket into Planetary Space"). 1924 -
Society for Studies of Interplanetary Travel founded in Moscow by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Friedrich Zander and 200 other space and rocket experts 1926 -
Robert Goddard launches the first liquid fuel rocket. 1927 -
Verein für Raumschiffahrt (VfR - "Spaceflight Society") founded in Germany. 1929 -
, considered to be one of the first "serious" science fiction films. Woman in the Moon 1931 -
Friedrich Schmiedl attempts the first rocket mail service in Austria 1935 -
Emilio Herrera Linares from Spain designed and made the first full-pressured astronaut suit, called the escafandra estratonáutica. The Russians then used a model of Herrera's suit when first flying into space of which the Americans would then later adopt when creating their own space program. 1937 -
Peenemünde Army Research Center founded in Germany 1938 - The Projectile Development Establishment founded at
Fort Halstead for the United Kingdom's research into military solid-fuel rockets. 1939 -
Katyusha multiple rocket launchers ( Russian: ) are a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union. 1941 - French rocket
EA-41 is launched, being the first European liquid propellant working rocket  1941 - Jet Assisted Take Off
JATO installed on US Army Air Corp Ercoupe aircraft occurred on 12 August in March Field, California. 1942 -
Wernher von Braun and Walter Dornberger launch the first V-2 rocket at Peenemünde in northern Germany. 1942 - A V-2 rocket reaches an altitude of 85 km.
1944 - The V-2 rocket
MW 18014 reaches an altitude of 176 km, becoming the first man-made object in space. 1945 -
Lothar Sieber dies after the first vertical take-off manned rocket flight in a Bachem Ba 349 "Natter" 1945 -
Operation Paperclip takes 1,600 German rocket scientists and technicians to the United States 1945 -
Operation Osoaviakhim takes 2,000 German rocket scientists and technicians to the Soviet Union 1946 - First flight of the
Nike missile, later the first operational surface-to-air guided missile 1947 -
Chuck Yeager achieves the first manned supersonic flight in a Bell X-1 rocket-powered aircraft 1949 -
Willy Ley publishes The Conquest of Space 1952 - 22 May, French
Véronique 1 rocket is launched from the Algerian desert. 1952 - Wernher von Braun discusses the technical details of a manned exploration of
Mars in . Das Marsprojekt 1953 - Colliers Magazine publishes a series of articles on man's future in space, igniting the interest of people around the world. The series includes numerous articles by Ley and von Braun, illustrated by Chesley Bonestell.
1956 - First launch of
PGM-17 Thor, the first US ballistic missile and forerunner of the Delta space launch rockets 1957 - Launch of the first
ICBM, the USSR's R-7 (8K71), known to NATO as the SS-6 Sapwood. 1957 - The USSR launches
Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite. 1958 - The U.S. launches
Explorer 1, the first American artificial satellite, on a Jupiter-C rocket. 1958 - US launches their first ICBM, the
Atlas-B (the Atlas-A was a test article only). 1961 - the USSR launches
Vostok 1, Yuri Gagarin reached a height of 327 km above Earth and was the first man to orbit Earth. 1961 - US, a
Mercury capsule named Freedom 7 with Alan B. Shepard, spacecraft was launched by a Redstone rocket on a ballistic trajectory suborbital flight. 1962 - The US launches Mercury MA-6 (
Friendship 7) on an Atlas D booster, John Glenn finally puts America in orbit. 1963 - The USSR launches
Vostok 6, Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman (and first civilian) to orbit Earth. She remained in space for nearly three days and orbited the Earth 48 times. 1963 - US
X-15 rocket-plane, the first reusable manned spacecraft (suborbital) reaches space, pioneering reusability, carried launch and glide landings. 1965 - USSR Proton rocket, highly successful launch vehicle with notable payloads, Salyut 6 & Salyut 7, Mir & ISS components
1965 - Robert Salked investigates various single stage to orbit spaceplane concepts
   1966 - USSR
Luna 9, the first soft landing on the Moon 1966 - USSR launches
Soyuz spacecraft, longest-running series of spacecraft, eventually serving Soviet, Russian and International space missions. 1969 - US
, first men on the Moon, first lunar surface extravehicular activity. Apollo 11 1981 - US
space shuttle pioneers reusability and glide landings 1998 - US
Deep Space 1 is first deep space mission to use an ion thruster for propulsion. 1998 - Russia launch Zarya module which is the first part of the International Space Station.
^ Winter, Frank H. (1992). "Who First Flew in a Rocket?", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 45 (July 1992), p. 275-80
Jean Cheymol. "Astronautique" (PDF). Biusante.parisdescartes.fr . Retrieved .
"MSFC History OFFICE: CLAUDE RUGGIERI". History.msfc.nasa.gov . Retrieved 2014.
^ "Considerations sur les resultats d'un allegement indefini des moteurs", Journal de physique theorique et appliquee, Paris, 1913
"Sommaire chronologie Ariane". Capcomespace.net . Retrieved 2017.
"Salkeld Shuttle". Astronautix.com . Retrieved 2014.
"ROBERT SALKELD'S". Pmview.com . Retrieved 2014.
"STS-1 Further Reading". History.nasa.gov . Retrieved 2014.
"First Space Tourist Dennis Tito to Make Business Visit to Russia". redOrbit. June 15, 2004. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010 . Retrieved 2013.
"SpaceShipOne Flight Tests". Scaled Composites. Archived from the original on 2010-08-22.
Clark, Stephen (2008-09-28). "Sweet Success at Last for Falcon 1 Rocket". Spaceflight Now . Retrieved . the first privately developed liquid-fueled rocket to successfully reach orbit.
Clark, Stephen (25 May 2012). "First commercial cargo ship arrives at space station". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012 . Retrieved 2014.
Belfiore, Michael (April 22, 2014). "SpaceX Brings a Booster Safely Back to Earth". MIT Technology Review . Retrieved 2014.
Orwig, Jessica (2014-11-25). "Elon Musk Just Unveiled A Game-Changing Ocean Landing Pad For His Reusable Rockets". Business Insider . Retrieved . The first successful "soft landing" of a Falcon 9 rocket happened in April of this year
Jeff Foust (December 21, 2015). "Falcon 9 Launches Orbcomm Satellites, Lands First Stage". SpaceNews . Retrieved . the first time SpaceX had successfully landed the rocket's first stage.
"SpaceX demonstrates rocket reusability with SES-10 launch and booster landing". Spacenews.com. 30 March 2017 . Retrieved 2017.
Grush, Loren (24 January 2018). "Rocket Lab secretly launched a disco ball satellite on its latest test flight". The Verge . Retrieved 2018.