Timeline of Telescopes, Observatories, and Observing Technology
Get Timeline of Telescopes, Observatories, and Observing Technology essential facts below. View
join the Timeline of Telescopes, Observatories, and Observing Technology discussion
Add Timeline of Telescopes, Observatories, and Observing Technology
to your Like2do.com topic list for future reference or
this resource on social media.
Timeline of Telescopes, Observatories, and Observing Technology
Timeline of telescopes, observatories, and observing technology.
Before the Common Era (BCE)
600s BCE 11th-7th century BCE, Zhou dynasty astronomical observatory () in today's Xian, China
Common Era (CE)
National Astronomical Observatory (Colombia), the first observatory in the Americas  1836 Swathithirunal opened Trivandrum observatory
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (inventor of the daguerreotype photographic process) attempts in to photograph the moon. Tracking errors in guiding the telescope during the long exposure made the photograph came out as an indistinct fuzzy spot 1840 -
John William Draper takes make a successful photographic image of the Moon, the first astronomical photograph 1845 -
Lord Rosse finishes the Birr Castle 72-inch (1.8 m) optical reflecting telescope, located in Parsonstown, Ireland 1849 - Santiago observatory set up by USA, later becomes Chilean National Observatory (now part of the
University of Chile)  1859 -
Kirchhoff and Bunsen develop spectroscopy 1864 -
Herschel's so-called GC (General Catalogue) of nebulae and star clusters published 1868 -
Janssen and Lockyer discover Helium observing spectra of Sun 1871 -
German Astronomical Association organized network of 13 (later 16) observatories for stellar proper motion studies 1863 -
William Allen Miller and Sir William Huggins use the photographic wet collodion plate process to obtain the first ever photographic spectrogram of a star, Sirius and Capella.  1872 -
Henry Draper photographs an spectrum of Vega that shows absorption lines.  1878 -
Dreyer published a supplement to the GC of about 1000 new objects, the New General Catalogue 1883 -
Andrew Ainslie Common uses the photographic dry plate process and a 36-inch (91 cm) reflecting telescope in his backyard to record 60 minute exposures of the Orion nebula that for the first time showed stars too faint to be seen by the human eye.  1887 - Paris conference institutes
project to map entire sky to 14th magnitude photographically Carte du Ciel 1888 - First light of
91cm refracting telescope at Lick Observatory, on Mount Hamilton near San Jose, California 1889 -
Astronomical Society of the Pacific founded 1890 -
Albert A. Michelson proposes the stellar interferometer 1892 -
George Ellery Hale finishes a spectroheliograph, which allows the Sun to be photographed in the light of one element only 1897 - Alvan Clark finishes the Yerkes 40-inch (1.0 m) optical refracting telescope, located in Williams Bay, Wisconsin
1960s 1960 -
Owens Valley 27-meter radio telescopes begin operation, located in Big Pine, California 1961 -
Parkes 64-metre radio telescope begins operation, located near Parkes, Australia 1962 -
European Southern Observatory (ESO) founded 1962 -
Kitt Peak solar observatory founded 1962 -
Green Bank, West Virginia 90m radio telescope 1962 -
Orbiting Solar Observatory 1 satellite launched 1963 -
Arecibo 300-meter radio telescope begins operation, located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico 1964 -
Martin Ryle's 1-mile (1.6 km) radio interferometer begins operation, located in Cambridge, England 1965 - Owens Valley 40-meter radio telescope begins operation, located in
Big Pine, California 1967 - First
VLBI images, with 183 km baseline 1969 - Observations start at
Big Bear Solar Observatory, located in Big Bear, California 1969 - Las Campanas Observatory
1970s 1970 -
Cerro Tololo 158-inch (4.0 m) optical reflecting telescope begins operation, located in Cerro Tololo, Chile 1970 -
Kitt Peak National Observatory 158-inch (4.0 m) optical reflecting telescope begins operation, located near Tucson, Arizona 1970 -
Uhuru x-ray telescope satellite 1970 -
Antoine Labeyrie performs the first high-resolution optical speckle interferometry observations 1970 -
Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope completed, near Westerbork, Netherlands 1972 - 100 m
Effelsberg radio telescope inaugurated ( Germany) 1973 -
UK Schmidt Telescope 1.2 metre optical reflecting telescope begins operation, located in Anglo-Australian Observatory near Coonabarabran, Australia 1974 -
Anglo-Australian Telescope 153-inch (3.9 m) optical reflecting telescope begins operation, located in Anglo-Australian Observatory near Coonabarabran, Australia 1975 - Gerald Smith, Frederick Landauer, and James Janesick use a
CCD to observe Uranus, the first astronomical CCD observation 1975 -
Antoine Labeyrie builds the first two-telescope optical interferometer 1976 - The 6-m
BTA-6 (Bolshoi Teleskop Azimutalnyi or "Large Altazimuth Telescope") goes into operation on Mt. Pashtukhov in the Russian Caucasus 1978 - Multiple Mirror 176-inch (4.5 m) equivalent optical/infrared reflecting telescope begins operation, located in
Amado, Arizona 1978 -
International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) telescope satellite 1978 -
Einstein High Energy Astronomy Observatory x-ray telescope satellite 1979 -
UKIRT 150-inch (3.8 m) infrared reflecting telescope begins operation, located at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii 1979 -
Canada-France-Hawaii 140-inch (3.6 m) optical reflecting telescope begins operation, located at Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii 1979 - NASA Infrared Telescope Facility  120-inch (3.0 m) infrared reflecting telescope begins operation, located at Mauna Kea, Hawaii
2000s 2001 - First light at the
Keck Interferometer. Single-baseline operations begin in the near-infrared. 2001 - First light at
VLTI interferometry array. Operations on the interferometer start with single-baseline near-infrared observations with the 103 m baseline. 2005 - First imaging with the
VLTI using the AMBER optical aperture synthesis instrument and three VLT telescopes. 2005 - First light at SALT, the largest optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere, with a primary mirror diameter of 11 meters.
King, David A. (2002), "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", Journal for the History of Astronomy, 33: 237-255 [237-8], Bibcode: 2002JHA....33..237K
Kennedy, Edward S. (1962), "Review: The Observatory in Islam and Its Place in the General History of the Observatory by Aydin Sayili", , Isis 53 (2): 237-239, doi: 10.1086/349558
Langermann, Y. Tzvi (1985), "The Book of Bodies and Distances of Habash al-Hasib", , Centaurus 28: 108-128 , Bibcode: 1985Cent...28..108T, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0498.1985.tb00831.x
O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Al-Khujandi", , MacTutor History of Mathematics archive University of St Andrews .
David Kahn (March 1980), "On the Origin of Polyalphabetic Substitution", , Isis University of Chicago Press, 71 (1): 122-127 , doi: 10.1086/352410, JSTOR 230316
Bryan S. Turner (March 1987), "State, Science and Economy in Traditional Societies: Some Problems in Weberian Sociology of Science", British Journal of Sociology, Blackwell Publishing, 38 (1): 1-23 , JSTOR 590576
Will Durant (1950). , pp. 239-45. The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith
John Brian Harley; David Woodward; G. Malcolm Lewis (1992). The History of Cartography: Cartography in the traditional Islamic and South Asian societies. 2. Oxford University Press. pp. 28-9. ISBN 0-226-31635-1.
Hassan, Ahmad Y., Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering , retrieved
Lorch, R. P. (1976), "The Astronomical Instruments of Jabir ibn Aflah and the Torquetum", , Centaurus 20 (1): 11-34, Bibcode: 1976Cent...20...11L, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0498.1976.tb00214.x
, Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots History Channel , retrieved
"History of the sundial". National Maritime Museum. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10 . Retrieved .
Jones, Lawrence (December 2005), "The Sundial And Geometry", North American Sundial Society, 12 (4)
Pedersen, Olaf (2010). A Survey of the Almagest. Springer. p. 20. ISBN 0387848258.
^ a b
Tekeli, Sevim (1997). "Taqi al-Din". Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-4066-3.
Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985), Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought, by Alfred Rupert Hall, page 67
Keenan, Philip C. (February 1, 1991). "The Earliest National Observatories in Latin America". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 22 (1): 21-30. Bibcode: 1991JHA....22...21K – via SAGE Journals.
Chronology of Science in the United States 1840-1849 (derived from . Clark A. Elliott, History of Science in the United States: A Chronology and Research Guide - New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1996, pp. 34-177)
^ a b
Spectrometers, ASTROLab of Mont-Mégantic National Park
J. B. Hearnshaw (1996-05-02). . Cambridge University Press. p. 122. The Measurement of Starlight: Two Centuries of Astronomical Photometry ISBN 978-0-521-40393-1.
Public Telescope: Erstes öffentliches Weltraumteleskop
Weltraumteleskop für jedermann welt.de
The first public space telescope Popular Astronomy UK
Michael A. Hoskin (1997). The Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-41158-5.
Edgardo Marcorini (1988). Scienza e tecnica. ISBN 978-0-87196-475-5.
George Ochoa; Melinda Corey (1997). The Wilson Chronology of Science and Technology: A Record of Scientific Discovery and Technological Invention, from the Stone Age to the Information Age. New York : H.W. Wilson. ISBN 978-0-8242-0933-9. Rushd? R?shid; Régis Morelon (1996). Encyclopedia of History of Arabic Science: Astronomy- theoretical and applied. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-12410-2.