Holyoke
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Holyoke

Holyoke, Massachusetts
City
City of Holyoke
Holyoke Skyline.jpg
North High Street, Holyoke MA.jpg
Holyoke Heritage State Park, Holyoke MA.jpg
Holyoke Beech Street in Spring.jpg
Holyoke Dam during thaw, 2018.jpg
Clockwise from top: The Holyoke skyline with the clock tower of City Hall and Mount Tom Range, Holyoke Heritage State Park and the Canalwalk, the Holyoke Dam, the Beech Street landscape in spring, and North High Street Historic District
Flag of Holyoke, Massachusetts
Flag
Official seal of Holyoke, Massachusetts
Seal
Official logo of Holyoke, Massachusetts
Wordmark
Nickname(s): The Paper City[1][2]
Birthplace of Volleyball[3][4]
The Venice of America[5]
Motto(s): [6]
Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts
Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts
Holyoke, Massachusetts is located in the US
Holyoke, Massachusetts
Holyoke, Massachusetts
Location in the United States
Holyoke, Massachusetts is located in Massachusetts
Holyoke, Massachusetts
Holyoke, Massachusetts
Holyoke, Massachusetts (Massachusetts)
Coordinates: 42°12?15?N 72°37?00?W / 42.20417°N 72.61667°W / 42.20417; -72.61667Coordinates: 42°12?15?N 72°37?00?W / 42.20417°N 72.61667°W / 42.20417; -72.61667
Country United States
State Massachusetts
CountyHampdenCountyMA-seal.svg Hampden
Settled1655
Incorporated (parish)[a]July 7, 1786[7]
Incorporated (town)March 14, 1850[8]
Incorporated (city)April 7, 1873[9]
Founded byGeorge C. Ewing
Boston Associates
Named forElizur Holyoke
Government
 o TypeMayor-council city
 o MayorAlex B. Morse
Area
 o Total22.8 sq mi (59.1 km2)
 o Land21.3 sq mi (55.1 km2)
 o Water1.5 sq mi (4.0 km2)
Elevation200 ft (60 m)
Highest elevation (Mount Tom)1,202 ft (366 m)
Population (2010)
 o Total39,880
 o Estimate (2017)[10]40,341
 o Density1,874/sq mi (723.6/km2)
Demonym(s)Holyoker[11]
Holyokian[12](rare)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 o Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP code01040,
01041 (P.O.)
Area code(s)413
FIPS code25-30840
GNIS feature ID0617679
Websitewww.holyoke.org

Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States, that lies between the western bank of the Connecticut River and the Mount Tom Range. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 39,880.[13] As of 2017, the estimated population was 40,341.[10] Sitting 8 miles (13 km) north of Springfield, Holyoke is part of the Springfield Metropolitan Area, one of the two distinct metropolitan areas in Massachusetts.

Holyoke is among the first planned industrial cities in the United States; built in tandem with the Holyoke Dam to utilize the water power of Hadley Falls, it is among the only cities in New England built around a gridded road plan.[14] During the late 19th century the city produced an estimated 80% of the writing paper used in the United States and was home to the largest paper mill architectural firm in the country,[15] as well as the largest paper, silk, and alpaca wool mills in the world.[16][17] Although a considerably smaller number of businesses in Holyoke work in the paper industry today,[18][19] it is still commonly referred to as "The Paper City".[1][2] Today the city contains a number of specialty manufacturing companies,[20] as well as the Massachusetts Green High Performance Computing Center, an intercollegiate research facility which opened in 2012.[21] Holyoke is also home to the Volleyball Hall of Fame and known as the "Birthplace of Volleyball", as the internationally played Olympic sport was invented and first played at the local YMCA chapter by William G. Morgan in 1895.[3][4]

While working for the Holyoke Water Power Company in the 1880s, hydraulic engineer Clemens Herschel invented the Venturi meter to determine the water use of individual mills in the Holyoke Canal System. This device, the first accurate means of measuring large-scale flows, is widely used in a number of engineering applications today, including waterworks and carburators, as well as aviation instrumentation.[22][23] Powered by these municipally owned canals, Holyoke has among the lowest energy rates in the Commonwealth,[24] and as of 2016 between 85% and 90% of the city's energy was carbon neutral, with administrative goals in place to reach 100% in the immediate future.[25][26]

History

Mount Tom, circa 1865, by Thomas Charles Farrer, oil on canvas, as seen at the National Gallery of Art

English colonists arrived in the Connecticut River Valley in 1633, when traders from the Plymouth Plantation established a post at Windsor, Connecticut. In 1636, Massachusetts Bay Colony assistant treasurer and Puritan iconoclast William Pynchon led a group of settlers from Roxbury, Massachusetts to the Valley to establish Springfield on land scouts had found to be advantageous for farming and trading. This settlement was built north of the Connecticut River's first major falls, Enfield Falls, where seagoing vessels had to transfer cargo into smaller shallops to continue northward on the river. Due to its proximity to the banks of the river Springfield quickly became a successful settlement on the Bay Path to Boston, as well as the Massachusetts Path to Albany. Originally, the settlement spanned both sides of the river but was partitioned in 1774 with the land on the western bank becoming West Springfield, Massachusetts. This area, previously allotted to landowners on the east side of the river in Springfield, was settled by colonists by 1655.[7]:148 Holyoke as a geographic entity was initially incorporated as a parish; the 3rd Parish of West Springfield, otherwise known as "Ireland" or "Ireland Parish" was first incorporated on July 7, 1786.[7]:70 The area's first post office, "Ireland", was established June 3, 1822, with Martin Chapin as first postmaster; it was discontinued in 1883. Another, "Ireland Depot", was established February 26, 1847, with John M. Chapin as first postmaster, and assumed the town name upon Holyoke's incorporation.[27] Though the name Hampden was considered, the area was subsequently named for earlier Springfield settler William Pynchon's son-in-law, Elizur Holyoke, who had first explored the area in the 1650s.[28] Following land acquisitions and development by the Hadley Falls Company, the town of Holyoke was officially incorporated on March 14, 1850.[8] The first official town meeting took place a week later, on March 22, 1850.[7]:76-77

The last stone is layed at the Holyoke Dam, 3pm, January 5, 1900.

A part of Northampton known as Smith's Ferry was separated from the rest of the town by the creation of Easthampton in 1809. The shortest path to downtown Northampton was on a road near the Connecticut River oxbow, which was subject to frequent flooding. The neighborhood became the northern part of Holyoke in 1909.[29]

Holyoke had few inhabitants until the construction of the dam and the Holyoke Canal System in 1849 and the subsequent construction of water-powered mills, particularly paper mills. At one point over 25 paper mills were in operation in the city. The Holyoke Machine Company, manufacturer of the Hercules water turbine, was among many industrial developments of the era.[30][31][32]

A Wason streetcar operated by the Holyoke Street Railway interurban system, shortly before its dismantlement in 1937

Holyoke's population rose from just under 5,000 in 1860 to over 60,000 in 1920. Due to this staggering growth the municipality was officially incorporated as a city on April 7, 1873, only 23 years after its initial incorporation as the "Town of Holyoke".[9] Later that year the city elected its first mayor, William B. C. Pearsons who, a quarter-century earlier, had established himself among the first lawyers in the city, and was the first editorial writer of the area newspaper-of-record, the Hampden Freeman, best known as the Holyoke Transcript-Telegram.[33]

High Street, c. 1920

In 1888, Holyoke's paper industry spurred the foundation of the American Pad & Paper Company, which as of 2007 is one of the largest suppliers of office products in the world. Holyoke was also previously the location of the headquarters of the American Writing Paper Company, a trust company established in 1899 with the merging of 23 rag paper mills, 13 of which were located in Holyoke. At one point the company was the largest producer of fine papers in the world, however incompetent leadership lacking technical knowledge of the industry, and heavily oriented around shareholder returns, led the company to fold as a manufacturer by 1963.[34][35][36] The availability of water power enabled Holyoke to support its own electric utility company and maintain it independently of America's major regional utilities. The city was thus a rare unaffected area in the Northeast blackout of 1965, for example.[37][38]

Geography

Media related to Maps of Holyoke, Massachusetts at Wikimedia Commons

Holyoke is located at 42°12?11?N 72°37?26?W / 42.20306°N 72.62389°W / 42.20306; -72.62389 (42.203191, -72.623969).[39] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.8 square miles (59 km2), of which 21.3 square miles (55 km2) is land and 1.5 square miles (3.9 km2) (6.70%) is water. The city is bordered by Southampton and Westfield to the west, Easthampton to the north, Hadley, South Hadley and Chicopee as river borders to the east, and West Springfield to the south.

Holyoke is the location of East Mountain, the Mount Tom Range, and Mount Tom, at 1,202 feet (366 m) the highest traprock peak on the Metacomet Ridge, a linear mountain range that extends from Long Island Sound to the Vermont border. The most densely populated area of the city, lying between the Mount Tom Range and the Connecticut River, is characterized by a series of level terraces separated by undeveloped wooded ravines, known as dingles, which drain to the river.[40] Mount Tom is characterized by its high cliffs, sweeping vistas, and microclimate ecosystems. The 110-mile (180 km) Metacomet-Monadnock Trail traverses the Mount Tom Range and East Mountain. Fossilized dinosaur tracks and specimens can be found at the foot of these mountains due to their unique geology. A species of dinosaur, Podokesaurus holyokensis, whose fossils were first discovered across the river in South Hadley, was given its name for the area,[41] and the city has in recent years passed measures to try to protect fossils in the its parks from theft or vandalism.[42]

Neighborhoods

The city of Holyoke contains 15 distinct neighborhoods of differing character. Some, like Springdale and Oakdale, were conceived by individual developers as streetcar suburbs for mill workers in the 19th century, whereas others like Rock Valley and Elmwood were previously extant villages within West Springfield that predate the city. Additionally a number of names such as Ewingville and Elmwood Heights[43] have been used historically but have become defunct as separate entities. In alphabetical order, Holyoke's neighborhoods are:[44]

Architecture

The Casper Ranger House, a rare example of a building designed by its namesake contractor, whose construction work encompassed many of Holyoke's neighborhoods as well as prominent buildings on Mount Holyoke College's campus.[49]
Gauthier Block, one of several Italianate brick tenements designed by architect Oscar Beauchemin.[50]
The Albion Paper Mill, designed by internationally renowned mill architect David H. Tower, c. 1869, an example of Second Empire industrial architecture in the city

Holyoke's industrial development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries led to a massive demand for new housing and accommodating structures as the population grew by more than 1000% from the years from 1850 to 1890.[51] Initially this demand was filled by company housing, including such examples as the Hadley Falls Company Housing District, whose structures were built in 1847-1848. Gradually the Holyoke Water Power Company began building housing on its land holdings to sell to working families,[52] and by the end of the 19th century more private developments had begun to appear. Holyoke's architecture can be characterized by a mixture of Italianate, Gothic Revival, Queen Anne and Second Empire, with some Tudor revival examples throughout its neighborhoods.[53] The city is also home to at least two examples of works by national architects, the Holyoke City Hall designed in the Gothic Revival style by Charles B. Atwood,[54] and the now-defunct Connecticut River Railroad Station designed by eminent architect H. H. Richardson.[55]Philadelphia rowhouses are also a common feature among residential streets in downtown area.[56]

Throughout its history Holyoke has been home to a number of local architects who shaped its unique urban landscape. The most prominent included George P. B. Alderman, who designed industrial buildings as well as the Holyoke Post Office, apartment blocks, and many of the city's iconic Victorian estates. Alderman started his independent practice after being an apprentice to James A. Clough of Clough & Reid, who is best known as the architect of the former iconic Mount Tom Summit Houses as well as the Holyoke Public Library. Architect Oscar Beauchemin's work shaped both the Main Street landscape of Springdale and many large multi-colored brick tenements built in mixed density housing can be attributed to him, often with Renaissance Revival architectural motifs.

Holyoke's own millwright engineers and architects David and Ashley Tower, doing business as D. H. & A. B. Tower, would go on to design more than 100 mills in the latter half of the 19th century, and in many respects made Holyoke synonymous with its present-day handle "The Paper City". Holyoke's paper mills from this period were largely the work of the brothers, who designed mills on five continents and among the first of Kimberly-Clark and Crane Currency.[57][58] In sum they would design 16 factories and mills in Holyoke and, including minor design roles, performed engineering work in some capacity on 25 of the city's in total.[59]

Planned industrial community

The town seal used from 1850 to 1874; it contains a beehive, in heraldry symbolizing industriousness and cooperation.
Early plan of Holyoke, its canal system and roads; drafted by the Hadley Falls Company in 1853.

As one of the first planned industrial communities in the United States, downtown Holyoke features rectilinear street grids--a novelty in New England. This street hierarchy is seen as a potential economic development tool as it lends well to high-rise buildings, and the surrounding canals could be landscaped into a source of recreation and relaxation. Whereas New York's Commissioner's Plan of 1811 lays out a system of numbered streets and avenues, the names of routes in Holyoke's grid system alternate between tree species for North to South streets (Sycamore, Locust, Linden, Oak, Beech, Pine, Walnut, Elm, Chestnut, Maple), and the names of the Hadley Falls Company founders (Lyman, Dwight, Appleton, Cabot, Sargeant, Jackson), as well as several Massachusetts counties (Hampden, Suffolk, Essex, Hampshire, Franklin) for thoroughfares running east to west.[60][61][62] The city's advantageous location on the Connecticut River--the largest river in New England--beside Hadley Falls, the river's steepest drop (60 feet), attracted the Boston Associates, who had successfully developed Lowell, Massachusetts' textile industry.[63] From the late 19th century until the mid-20th century, Holyoke was the world's biggest paper manufacturer.[63] The elaborate Holyoke Canal System, built to power paper and textile mills, distinguishes it from other Connecticut River cities. A series of railways running parallel to these canals also provided easy access to freight, a number of which remain operational today under the Pioneer Valley Railroad.

Demographics

As of the census of 2010, there were 39,880 people, 15,361 households, and 9,329 families residing in Holyoke. There were 16,384 housing units in the city.

The racial makeup in 2016 was 43.2% non-Hispanic white, 4.4% black, 0.6% American Indian, 1.9% Asian (0.9% Indian, 0.5% Cambodian, 0.2% Korean, 0.2% Chinese), 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.1% some other race, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 50.0% of the population (45.9% Puerto Rican, 1.7% Dominican, 0.5% Mexican, 0.5% Colombian, 0.3% Venezuelan, 0.1% Argentine, 0.1% Cuban, 0.1% Honduran, 0.1% Salvadoran).[64]

There were 15,361 households, out of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.5% were headed by married couples living together, 24.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.3% were non-families. Of all households, 32.0% were made up of individuals, and 12.3% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51, and the average family size was 3.16.[64]

In the city, 26.4% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.2% were from 18 to 24, 25.5% were from 25 to 44, 23.8% were from 45 to 64, and 14.2% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.4 males.[64]

For the period 2011-15, the estimated median annual income for a household in the city was $36,608, and the median income for a family was $41,194. Male full-time workers had a median income of $43,902 versus $40,988 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,343. About 25.9% of families and 28.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.9% of those under age 18 and 17.9% of those age 65 or over.[65]

The city reached its peak population just before the First World War in 1913, with an estimated total of 62,300 people according to a report by the school superintendent at that time.[66] Following a period of de-industrialization after the war and into the end of the 20th century, the population reached a low of an estimated 39,790 residents in 2001, but since the 2010 census the city has seen its highest population growth since World War II, with a 2017 estimate of 40,341 people.[51][67]

Ethnicity and immigration

The inside of a High Street laundry shop owned and operated by Mr. Lee Wong Hing, a Chinese American merchant, c. 1904

Throughout its history Holyoke has undergone fluctuations in different foreign-born demographics. In the 1890 census, Holyoke had the third most foreign-born residents, per capita, of any city in the United States, with 47% of residents born in another country; this was exceeded only by Fall River, Massachusetts and Duluth, Minnesota.[36] Later waves of immigration led to significant growth and cultural influence of communities of Germans, Italians, Jews, Poles, and Scots into the first half of the 20th century, and Puerto Ricans, Greeks, Columbians, and Dominicans in the subsequent decades.

Historically, a city of working-class immigrants, the first wave of mill workers was predominantly Irish. Irish immigrants began to settle in the region before the construction of the dam and the industrialization that followed, which is why the area was often referred to as "Ireland" or "Ireland Parish." While land had been settled by colonists by 1655, it wasn't until the following decade that homesteads appeared. Traditional accounts refer to John Riley as the first permanent settler of Holyoke,[68][69]:12 but while Riley owned 28 acres of land along "Riley's Brook" (now Tannery Brook in modern-day Ingleside), it was his daughters Mary and Margaret, and their Irish Protestant husbands, Joseph Ely and William MacCranny, who first resided there beginning in 1667.[70]:10 By the time West Springfield was partitioned in 1707, a number of Irish families had moved to the Parish. With the emergence of Holyoke's industries after the city's founding, a new wave of Irish immigration occurred and by 1855 a third of the city's residents were of Irish heritage. Holyoke's Irish roots are celebrated in its annual St. Patrick's Day Parade.[71]

In the 1850s, the mill owners began to recruit French-Canadians, who were viewed as docile and less likely to create labor unions due to their agrarian backgrounds and anti-union rhetoric promoted by Québecois clergy at that time.[72] Many of these Québecois workers were first recruited by Nicholas Proulx (anglicized as Prew) who hailed from Saint-Ours, Quebec and first arrived in Holyoke in 1856. He and his sons would bring in a number of line workers for the Lyman Mills, including his son John J. Prew, who went on to become the founder of Springdale and the first French member of the city council, then known as the board of aldermen.[73][74] By 1900, 1 in 3 residents was of French or French Canadian descent,[74] and by the time the city reached its peak population of 62,300 in 1913, this number had become 1 in 4, while the city contained the 7th largest Franco-American population in the country, exceeding that of Chicago's at that time.[75] By 1980 from a combination of economic changes and cultural integration, this population comprised about 10% of the population, a similar figure to those who identified as French or French Canadian in the 2010 census.[76][77]

Worker housing and Lutheran Church of the former Germania Mills einwandererkolonie (lit. immigrant colony), 1941

Beginning at the end of World War II, an influx of Puerto Ricans and other Latino groups began to immigrate to the Northeast United States, driven largely by the Farm Labor Program initiated by the US Department of Labor.[78] Not unlike the Bracero program, over the next several decades the agency actively recruited Puerto Rican laborers to work on agricultural land in the United States; in the case of Holyoke, many worked on the valley's tobacco farms,[79] and arrived in the city in search of better job opportunities at the mills as previous generations had.[80] The first permanent Puerto Rican resident was said to have been Domingo Perez; a landlord who later became among the first to be appointed in city government, he was reported to have arrived in Holyoke around 1955.[81][82] By 1970 the number of Puerto Rican residents numbered around 5,000,[83] however by that time of their arrival, many faced a city economy in free fall. Holyoke's mills had begun to shutter due to the changing economic landscape of early globalization and deindustrialization; from 1955 to 1970, 1 for every 2 industrial jobs vanished.[81][84] Despite economic and social difficulties the population grew significantly during the 1980s, and from 1990 to 2016, the buying power of the Latino community at-large increased by nearly 300%.[85] Today Latinos form the city's largest minority group, with the largest Puerto Rican population per capita of any American city outside Puerto Rico proper, at 44.7%.[77] The entire Latino population of Holyoke, as of the 2010 census, was 19,313, or 48.4% of the city's population of 39,880.

Religion

Mater Dolorosa Parish

As a city of built by several immigrant groups throughout its history, Holyoke is home to houses of worship for numerous denominations of Christianity and Judaism. One of the city's oldest monikers was Baptist Village as the first congregation established there was the First Baptist Church of Holyoke, which first erected a meetinghouse in 1792, traces its origins to five baptisms on the shores of the Connecticut in 1725, and continues as a congregation today.[70]

As of 2010 an estimated 60% of Holyoke is religious, with the largest demographic being Christians, more specifically Roman Catholics, who comprise 49% of the city's population.[86] In 2011, two Catholic parishes, Holy Cross and Mater Dolorosa were merged into Our Lady of the Cross Parish.[87] A number of other Catholic parishes, including Our Lady of Guadalupe, St. Jerome's, and Immaculate Conception Parish also reside in the city.[88][89]

In addition to its parishes, the city has a number of convents of sisters including the Sisters of Providence of Holyoke in Ingleside, the Sisters of St. Joseph of Springfield who maintain some group homes there, and the Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi in Highland Park.

Protestant congregations have played a significant role in Holyoke's civic life since its founding, including such groups as the First Congregational Church of Holyoke, founded in 1850,[90] the First Lutheran Church of Holyoke, founded in 1867,[91] and the United Methodist Church of Holyoke, South Hadley, and Granby, which meets in South Hadley, which was founded in 1810.[92]

A Greek Orthodox church, Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church, has also existed in the city since its founding in 1917.[93]

Holyoke is also home to a significant Jewish population. As one of 35 municipalities in Massachusetts with more than 100 Jewish residents, Holyoke is home to an estimated 1,300 residents observing the faith and two synagogues, Congregation Sons of Zion, a Reform congregation, and Congregation Rodphey Sholom, practicing Orthodoxy. Both congregations originated in the 19th century, with Rodphey Sholom being founded in 1903 but tracing its heritage to the Paper City Lodge of the Order Brith Abraham, founded in 1899, and Sons of Zion being founded in 1901; today both congregations often hold joint services during certain holidays.[94][95][69]:172

Economy

From top to bottom: A sample of "Skinner's Satins" silk in the Smithsonian, produced by William Skinner and Sons, c. 1950. A ream of Holyoke "Eagle A" paper made by the American Writing Paper Company, and subsequently the Brown Company; c. 1970.

Manufacturing

Known by its moniker, the "Paper City", Holyoke's economic base was developed almost entirely around the paper industry for the better part of the late 19th and early 20th century; at one time the city was reportedly the largest producer of stationery, writing, and archival goods in the world.[96][97] While writing paper production has left the city, Holyoke is still home to a number of specialty paper manufacturers and converters, including companies like Eureka Lab Book, Hampden Paper, Hazen Paper, United Paper Box, and University Products. Several international companies also maintain manufacturing facilities in the area, including a power transmission factory for U.S. Tsubaki in Springdale, and a Sonoco cardboard recycling plant in South Holyoke. Some former mills have in the past been used as incubators for new manufacturing businesses as well; from 1973 until 1983, when it relocated to a newly constructed factory in Deerfield, Yankee Candle's first factory was located in one such building in the canal district.[98]

Though the number of service-based jobs overtook Holyoke manufacturing jobs in 1972,[99] the city is still home to an array of manufacturing concerns outside of the paper and textile industries, including several producing industrial machinery and components. Until 2017, its oldest manufacturer was the Holyoke Machine Company which, incorporated in 1863, served large mills and factories with specialty roll parts and service; the firm manufactured a number of different products. At one time the company produced the "Holyoke Hercules" model of water turbine which served the city's industries on the canal system, and previously their shops cast the bronze doors to the U.S. Capitol Building.[100] Today the city is still home to a number of firms specializing in such equipment as medical devices, industrial vacuums, solid waste containers, plastics and rubber manufacturing, bookbinding agents and archival supplies.[20]

In recent years the city has also seen a handful of food manufacturing firms, due to its proximity to large metropolitan areas like New York City and Boston. In 1996 the Paper City Brewing Company opened out of one of the former Farr Alpaca Company's facilities, following a period of financial difficulties in 2017, the brewery closed temporarily, with plans in place to reopen in the future.[101] Another notable firm, Dan's Power Plant, produces nut-based cheese substitutes known as "Fauxmaggio", as a vegan alternative, selling many of their products in upscale markets in New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.[102][103]

Main campus of the Massachusetts Green High Performance Computing Center, the newest building constructed to draw power from the Holyoke Canal System

Technology

In recent years there have been successful efforts to attract high-tech jobs to Holyoke and diversify its economic base. For example, a coalition of universities and tech companies have built the Massachusetts Green High Performance Computing Center, an energy-efficient, high-performance computing center, in Holyoke which opened in 2012. Partners in this project include Cisco Systems, Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT,) the University of Massachusetts, Boston University, Northeastern University, EMC Corporation, and Accenture PLC. The data center has been built in Holyoke in part due to hydropower accessibility.[104]ISO New England, an electricity regional transmission organization, is based in Holyoke, utilizing the city's central location for easy access to metropolitan areas in New England and New York.[105]

Services

The retail sector has been a major employer since the construction of the Holyoke Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in New England, in 1979. Retail has provided the city with a large and steady tax base, contributing over $7 million in taxes annually.[106]

The city also features the corporate headquarters of PeoplesBank, the largest bank in Western Massachusetts, as well as the local Holyoke Credit Union which was originally started as a credit union for the students of a former parochial school.

Urban agriculture

Converted shipping containers used for training in hydroponic agriculture, a collaborative project between Holyoke Community College, Nuestras Raices, and MassDevelopment.[107]

Despite its reputation as an industrial city, agriculture has played a continuing role in the city's livelihood throughout its history. On July 24, 1917, Holyoke became the first city in Western Massachusetts to open a modern farmers market, a novelty at the time, bringing producers directly to consumers.[108] The city's current farmers market, which began in 1979, is regularly held outside city hall on Thursdays from 10 to 2 from May to October.[109] As late as the 1950s, the city maintained a poor farm while, in contrast, during much of the late 19th century a number of wealthy manufacturers raised thoroughbred Jersey cattle.[110] This trend began in 1881, when the city went from a population of zero to about fifty head of registered Jerseys, the largest herd in the Connecticut Valley being that of William Whiting.[111] This prize-winning herd, then 75 head, was lost however to an incendiary fire that destroyed Whiting Farm's stock barn in 1919.[112] Conventional dairy and cattle farming remained in the city through most of the 20th century, with the last conventional farm closing in 1982.[113]

Nevertheless smaller market agriculture operations, which began in the 20th century, endure today. Among Holyoke's most notable contemporary agricultural organizations is Nuestras Raices. Established in 1992 by members of the La Finquita community garden of South Holyoke, as a nonprofit organization it has worked with state and federal agencies to help new farmers build skills and expertise, particularly in the Puerto Rican community, through microloans, direct marketing, and land leasing.[114]

Holyoke also features a prominent example of ecosystem garden permaculture- the Holyoke Edible Food Forest Garden, established in 2004 by Eric Toensmeier and Jonathan Bates. In the following decade the two designed and developed their tenth of an acre backyard into a year-round food producing garden, featuring over 100 perennial plant species which sustain limited wildlife populations, and have remediated soil on the site.[115] Their permaculture garden has been featured in the New York Times, as well as lectures at Harvard and Yale University.[116][117] A detailed account of the design and management of this space and the principles behind it can be found in the book by the two, "Paradise Lot", released in 2013 by Chelsea Green Publishing.[118]

Soon after medical marijuana was legalized in Massachusetts, Mayor Alex Morse began promoting the city as a growth and distribution center for the new industry, due to its low energy costs and central proximity to several metropolitan markets.[119] Since the legalization of recreational weed in Massachusetts in 2016, the city has been approached by a number of cultivation businesses hoping to establish themselves in former mills.[120] In 2018, the first cannabis cultivation operation, a $10 million investment, opened in the city, with plans to open a dispensary in the future.[121]

Education

The city's educational needs are served by Holyoke Public Schools, including Holyoke High School, and a number of private institutions. The city's private schools include Paulo Friere Social Justice High School, Mater Dolorosa Catholic School and Pope Francis High School, the latter of which is now located in Springfield.[122]

The city is also home to Holyoke Community College, the first community college in the state, which was initially created by the city's school board. Today the 2-year college selectively allows high school seniors to enroll in its coursework for transferable college credit,[123] and has the highest percentage of student graduates completing associate degrees and certificate programs among the state's community colleges.[124] With the aid of state and federal education grants the college opened the HCC MGM Culinary Arts Institute in cooperation with MGM Springfield in April 2018.[125][126]

Library

The front facade Holyoke Public Library completed in 1902, as seen from Maple Street, and the 2013 expansion[127]

Holyoke Public Library, found at 335 Maple Street, is one of the very few examples of neoclassical architecture in the city of Holyoke, designed by prominent local architect James A. Clough. It sits on Library Park, which was donated by the Holyoke Water Power Company in 1887. The library established in 1870 was originally a room in the old Appleton Street School, and by 1876 moved to a central room on the main floor of City Hall. It remained there until its collections had outgrown this space and a modern facility was required.[128] Holyoke's citizens were charged to raise money to construct the library building and provide additional books. Under the leadership of Henry Chase, $95,000 was raised. William Whiting and William Skinner, each gave $10,000. Clough, the architect who designed the building, gave his services gratis because his daughter was a faithful patron of the library. It opened officially in 1902.[129][130]

At the dedication ceremony William Whiting, library president at the time, referred to the library as the "people's college" and added that: "A library is as much a part of the intellectual life of a community as its schools, and should be supported generously as part of our educational system. Within these walls you will find authors devoted to literature, arts and science, and they are free to any who will ask. We can say to the citizens of Holyoke you have only to ask her and you will find knowledge to make your life useful and happy."[128]

Culture

The Holyoke Opera House, built in 1879 by founder of Whiting Paper and then-Mayor William Whiting, it hosted numerous Vaudeville acts, as well as international music acts like the Royal Hungarian Court Orchestra, and the silent films of Lyman H. Howe.[131] Later converted to a full-time movie theater, the structure burnt down in 1967.[132]

A number of artists have been associated with the city since its founding, including Irish-American sculptor Jerome Connor, who moved to the city at the age of 14, and became best known for his sculptures in Washington, D.C. including Nuns of the Battlefield, one of only two such memorials in the capital to honor the role of women in the American Civil War.[133][134][135]:80

On May 2, 1885, Clark W. Bryan, a publisher and stakeholder in The Republican,[136] launched Good Housekeeping magazine, originally described as "not to be a bi-monthly cookbook" but "a family journal conducted in the interests of the higher life of the household". The magazine was subsequently published in Springfield after March 1887, and moved to New York following its acquisition in 1911 by the Hearst Corporation.[137] In literature, Holyoke was the hometown of John Clellon Holmes, whose novel Go is considered to be the first published novel depicting the Beat Generation, predating works of his contemporaries Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg.[138] Though not as well known as Holmes, the critically acclaimed novelist Raymond Kennedy set a number of his works in a fictional Holyoke, referred to as "Ireland Parish".[139][140] Internationally acclaimed photographer Mitch Epstein also hails from the city, receiving the United Kingdom's Kraszna-Krausz Photography Book Award in 2004 for his photo essay Family Business. The 2003 book covered the final days of his father's furniture and real estate businesses in the city, mirroring its deindustrialization and decline.[141]

The stage of the Victory Theater, closed since 1979, an ongoing attempt to revive the theater is being overseen by the Massachusetts International Festival of the Arts (MIFA).

During the height of its industrial prowess Holyoke was a regular stop on Vaudeville circuits, with its most famous actress, Eva Tanguay, known as "The Girl Who Made Vaudeville Famous". Tanguay moved to Holyoke at a young age, spending her childhood in the city where she began performing songs at an amateur show at the local Parsons Hall in the 1880s. Tanguay was soon discovered by a Pennsylvania touring company, and went on to become the first American popular musician to achieve mass-media celebrity.[142][143][144]:489 During her career her name was known from coast-to-coast and she would out-earn such celebrities as Enrico Caruso and Harry Houdini. Edward Bernays, the "father of public relations" went on to describe her celebrity as "our first symbol of emergence from the Victorian age".[143] Tanguay's was just one of many acts associated with the city's history, it was in Holyoke that vaudevillian Sophie Tucker was found by the Theatrical Syndicate's Marc Klaw who introduced her to Broadway's Ziegfeld Follies in 1909.[144]:509

Even as Vaudeville declined in the 1920s, the city remained a regular stop for actors and musicians alike. Among other acts, Bing Crosby and The Marx Brothers were known to have played shows in the city at its Victory Theater.[145] Performers from the B. F. Keith Circuit would regularly tour Mountain Park's own playhouse as well.[146] Perhaps the most prominent venue after the 1920s, the Valley Arena Gardens hosted a wide variety of musical acts including the likes of Count Basie, Duke Ellington, The Dorsey Brothers, The Glenn Miller Orchestra, Frances Langford, Cab Calloway, and Sarah Vaughn among many others still known in American popular culture today.[147][148]Holyoke City Hall during this period also regularly served as a venue for notable music acts as well, including several by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra annually from 1912-1925 under the direction Josef Stránský and subsequently Willem Mengelberg, and at least one performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1926.[149][150] These concerts were organized by the Chamber of Commerce, Holyoke Music Club, and Mount Holyoke College, which also brought a number of internationally-renowned artists to Holyoke High School as well, including violinist Efrem Zimbalist, baritone Reinald Werrenrath, Berlin State Opera contralto Margarethe Arndt-Ober, and pianist-composers Ethel Leginska and Percy Grainger.[151][152][153]

Of venues that once defined Holyoke's stage history, few remain; for the last decade an effort has been underway to restore the Victory Theater by the Massachusetts International Festival of the Arts.[154] These efforts have included introduction of the Victory Players in 2018, an international music residency program which plays contemporary classical music to support the funding of future theater programming.[155] Today Holyoke's venues include Gateway City Arts, a converted paper factory now serving as a regular music venue, as well as the site of the former Mountain Park, now used for some large outdoor concerts, and the Holyoke Turner Hall, which features smaller shows.[145][156] The city has its own symphony as well; the Holyoke Civic Symphony, originally a project of the Holyoke Community College, has been playing popular and classical works since 1967, and is based out of the college's Leslie Phillips Theater.[157]

Museums

The Wistariahurst Museum

In addition to the Volleyball Hall of Fame the city is also home to Wistariahurst. Named for the flowered vines which adorn its gardens, the estate was home to the Skinner Family which produced sewing silk and satins, becoming the largest producer of the latter in the world.[158] The museum is home to a wide variety of contemporary and historic gallery events and contains numerous archival collections for research. Though no longer in the museum collections, Wistariahurst was once home to the eminent Belle Skinner Collection of Musical Instruments, curated by its namesake Belle Skinner. Several decades after her death, the collection became a substantial part of the Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments.[b]

The Children's Museum at Holyoke, started by the Junior League of Holyoke in 1984,[159][160] features a number of hands-on exhibits, including a water table, Lite-Brite wall, and a variety of displays including 2,000 collector Pez dispensers.[161][162]

Annual events

The Holyoke Merry-Go-Round, moved to Heritage Park from the shuttered Mountain Park in 1993, is open year-round and prominently featured in the city's annual First Night Jr. and Celebrate Holyoke festivities.

Holyoke is home to the second-largest St. Patrick's Day parade in the United States, surpassed only by the New York City parade.[163][better source needed] Held annually since 1952 on the Sunday following St. Patrick's Day, the parade draws hundreds of thousands of people from across New England and the Eastern seaboard of United States. In recent years the Holyoke Saint Patrick's Day Parade typically attracts 350,000 to 450,000 people each year.[164] Featured in the parade every year since the first in 1952 is the Holyoke Caledonian Pipe Band,[165] founded in 1910, it is the oldest pipe band continuously operating in the United States.[166][167]

Participants crowd the weighing station for the annual Holyoke Shad Derby, c. 1965

Since 1962, the city has held an annual Shad Derby every year in May with rare exception. The contest, begun under the Holyoke Water Power Company, is now ran by the municipal energy department Holyoke Gas & Electric.[168][169] Though not weighed in time to enter Derby records, the section of the Connecticut south of the Holyoke Dam at Hadley Falls holds the world record for the largest American shad caught, which weighed 11 pounds, 4 ounces when it was hooked in 1986.[170][171] Thanks to conservation measures, the river is known for a thriving American shad population, which has fluctuated between 226,000 and 778,000 fish since 2000.[172]

Every June since it was first introduced by mayor and LGBT activist Alex Morse in 2012, the city has held a rainbow flag-raising ceremony in recognition of Gay Pride Month with the event often featuring speakers, music, and a moment of silence for victims of discrimination and persecution.[173][174]

The Puerto Rican community of Holyoke holds an annual Puerto Rican Day parade on the third weekend of July as part of an Annual Hispanic Family Festival held by La Familia Hispana, inc. Every year the parade grows in popularity, attracting Puerto Ricans from across the northeast.

In the last week of August, the city hosts Celebrate Holyoke at Holyoke Heritage State Park. The event, launched in 1986 to celebrate the opening of the then-new state park, features live music, food, and open house events for businesses in the downtown and canal district. In its first year alone the event featured a laser show, and had as many as 40 to 60 thousand attendants over the course of four days; financial difficulties however led to its cancellation in 1995.[175][176] The event was revived in 2015, and has continued as a two-day event since.[177]

Since 2016, every September the neighborhood association of South Holyoke has hosted El Sabor de South Holyoke (Taste of South Holyoke) a festival featuring local Puerto Rican cuisine, live music, and other events, including honoring different organizations such as the Holy Trinity Greek Church and Nueva Esperanza for their contributions to the community.[178]

Every November, the International Volleyball Hall of Fame presents awards to its next class of inductees, as the best players of that year are named. The Hall presents three additional awards annually: the Court of Honor Award for contributions of teams or organizations to volleyball, the William G. Morgan Award for outstanding support or promotion of the sport, and Mintonette Medallion of Merit Award in recognition of significant individual achievement, including coaches, referees, scorekeepers and other notable contributors to the sport.[179][180]

Points of interest

Holyoke City Hall, Holyoke, M.A.[181]

Sports

The obverse-side of the city's centennial seal, prominently featuring volleyball, as well as water-skiing on the Connecticut River, and the former Mount Tom Ski Area, all sports associated with the city's history and culture.

Birthplace of Volleyball

On February 9, 1895, William G. Morgan invented volleyball, originally known as "mintonette" for its similarity to badminton, at the Holyoke YMCA. Though the original YMCA building in which the sport was first played was lost to fire in 1943, the Greater Holyoke YMCA remains an active chapter.[184] Today the Volleyball Hall of Fame resides in Holyoke at Holyoke Heritage State Park and inducts a new class of athletes, coaches, and contributors every October. The city's legacy in the creation of the sport is also honored by two volleyball clubs in the Netherlands, which borrow its name - Belfeldse Volleybalclub Holyoke, of Belfeld, and Volleybalvereniging Holyoke of Enter.[185][186]

Baseball

Mackenzie Stadium during a Blue Sox game, seen from the grandstand.

The Valley Blue Sox, a member of the New England Collegiate Baseball League, play their home games at Mackenzie Stadium. Previously the Concord Quarry Dogs from 2001 until 2006, the collegiate summer baseball franchise moved to Holyoke in 2007, winning their first NECBL Championship in 2017.[187]

Holyoke has been home to a handful of minor league and collegiate baseball teams, among the first was the Holyoke Paperweights of the Connecticut League from 1903 to 1911.[188] The Holyoke Millers, a Double-A team, moved to the city following a single season in Pittsfield as the Berkshire Brewers. Early planning proved difficult for the team as they often had to coordinate with the athletic departments of Holyoke High School and Holyoke Catholic High School for use of the field at that time.[189] The Millers would leave for New Hampshire after their 1982 season, when the franchise changed its affiliation from the Milwaukee Brewers to the California Angels; that franchise is now the Harrisburg Senators.[190]

While unsuccessful attempts were made to attract a new team in the years that followed,[189] Holyoke would not host another until 2004. Following their departure from Middletown, Connecticut, the Holyoke Giants, a Futures Collegiate Baseball League team, made Mackenzie Stadium their home until 2007, subsequently becoming the North Shore Navigators of Lynn.[191]

Boxing

Holyoke has a rich history in the world of boxing. It was in Holyoke that bantamweight Sixto Escobar, the first Puerto Rican to become a world champion, fought and won his first match in the United States, on May 7, 1934, against bantamweight contender and Canadian flyweight champion Bobby Leitham.[192][193] Most notably, Rocky Marciano's professional debut took place at the Valley Arena Gardens on St. Patrick's Day, March 17, 1947; the venue also served as the ring for many other well-known fighters including Beau Jack, Fritzie Zivic, and Tony DeMarco.[194] Prior to his professional career, one of Mike Tyson's earliest fights was at the Holyoke Boys and Girls Club on February 12, 1983. As the 8th ranked amateur super-heavyweight in the country at the age of 16, Tyson won the fight handily with a knock-out, and gained the Western Massachusetts Golden Gloves title.[195][196] The Golden Gloves tournament was held in Holyoke from 1958 until 2005, when it was relocated to Vernon, Connecticut. Following an 8-year departure, it returned briefly to the city,[197][198] and is held in Springfield today.[199]

Golf

Donald Ross, famed golf course architect who lived in Holyoke for several years, initially with financial backing of local businessman J. L. Wyckoff

Holyoke has two private golf courses in Smith's Ferry, on opposite sides of Mount Tom, the 9-hole Holyoke Country Club and the 18-hole Wyckoff Country Club, the latter of which was originally designed by noted golf course architect Donald Ross. With the construction of Interstate 91 in the 1960s, the course required a redesign. From 1966 to 1967 much of the landscape was reshaped by golf architect Al Zikorus; today five holes and seven greens remain of Ross's original designs.[200][201]

The Wyckoff course opened in 1899 as the Mount Tom Golf Club, and was described as rocky and unrefined in its early years.[202] In 1910, Joseph L. Wyckoff, partner of stationary maker White & Wyckoff, and the club's eventual namesake, was playing a round with then-president of the Boston Athletic Association Edward E. Babb. Wyckoff remarked the course at the time was "an apology for a [golf] course" and that he wished to find a man who "really knew about the laying out a golf course". Babb, a member of Oakley Country Club, said he knew such a person, introducing Wyckoff to Ross later that year.[203] Wyckoff brought Ross back to the course, where he suggested key changes, but was unable to prepare plans as he had just signed a two-year contract as professional for the Essex Golf & Country Club.[204] Upon completion of this contract he returned to Holyoke in 1914 where he was put up in a house built for him by Wyckoff, who saw himself as a patron of Ross, and offered him financial backing to pursue a broader career in golf course architecture.[203][205] It is unknown what duration Ross lived in the city as he had summer homes and travelled often, though a Boston Herald article places him there in 1919.[203] He would work with the club for many years, completing a full redesign of the course by 1922,[206] which remained unchanged until the construction of I-91 in 1965.

Parks and recreation

Top to bottom: Springdale Park and its original vegetation plan by the Olmsted Brothers.

Holyoke is home to a wide array of municipal, state, and private land trust parks, including several designed by the Olmsted Brothers. The largest of these is Springdale Park, designed by the brothers in 1905-1906, and today the site of the annual Western Massachusetts Puerto Rican Parade and Festival. The park is one of three of the city's flagship parks, the other two being Pulaski Park, also an Olmsted design, and the Roberts Sports Complex, former site of Elmwood Park, which abuts Mackenzie Stadium. In total the city department of parks and recreation maintains 47 listed municipal facilities comprising nearly 250 acres, and including several baseball diamonds, playgrounds, a skatepark, basketball courts, tennis courts, a municipal pool, and a dog park.[207][208] The Holyoke Water Works also maintains land holdings for the preservation of its watershed, some of which are open to the public, including Ashley Reservoir and Whiting Street Reservoir, which allow hiking but bar certain activities such as fishing, dog walking, and swimming.[209] This same area, which transects the Metacomet Ridge, also contains a portion of the New England National Scenic Trail, managed by the National Park Service.

Mount Tom rising above a cloud of fog

There are two state parks in Holyoke maintained by the Commonwealth's Department of Conservation and Recreation, the largest being the Mount Tom State Reservation, as well as the urban Holyoke Heritage State Park which was built on the site of the former Skinner Silk Mill, adjacent to City Hall.

The Trustees of Reservations maintain a number of parks in the city, including the Dinosaur Footprints Reservation, Land of Providence, and Little Tom Mountain. The latter, once part of the Mount Tom Ski Area, has remained closed since the ski resort shuttered in 1998, and was subsequently purchased in part by the Trustees, along with the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Holyoke Boys & Girls Club. In recent years there has been discussion of reopening the property as a nature camp, or potentially as a special permit skiing area, not unlike Mount Snow, however while some have still used the remaining ski slopes in recent years, the area has been subject to vandalism and remains closed with no plans for reopening agreed by its landholders.[210][211][212]

Government and politics

County-level state agency heads
Clerk of Courts: Laura S. Gentile (D)
District Attorney: Anthony Gulluni (D)
Register of Deeds: Donald E. Ashe (D)
Register of Probate: Stephanie K. Fattman (I)
County Sheriff: Nicholas Cocchi (D)
State government
State Representative(s): Aaron Vega (D)
State Senator(s): Donald Humason Jr. (R)
Governor's Councilor(s): Mary Hurley (D)
Federal government
U.S. Representative(s): Richard Neal (D-1st District),
U.S. Senators: Elizabeth Warren (D), Ed Markey (D)

Holyoke has a strong mayor - council government where the executive historically has broad powers to directly appoint officials or commissions which perform the same function, as well as present an initial budget before the city council.[69]:163 Taken into consideration with the authority of the city council, the office however has been described by the Massachusetts state government as having tempered executive powers.[213] For example, the mayor retains appointment of the chief of police directly,[214] including terms of their contract, as well as the three members of the fire commission, without council approval.[215] The fire commission however has exclusive authority to appoint or suspend the chief and other officers. Other municipal positions such as treasurer or city clerk are elected directly, unless said officeholder is appointed by the mayor in an acting capacity.[216] In 2015 voters passed a resolution raising mayoral terms from two to four years.[217] In 2017, Mayor Alex Morse was re-elected and is presently serving the city's first four-year mayoral term.[218]

Holyoke's legislative body is its City Council, which features seven ward representatives and six councilors at large. Historic records refer to the city council as the "Board of Aldermen" until its name changed in 1992,[219] however the title also reflected a separate body. From 1874 until 1896, the City Council was bicameral; the Board of Aldermen consisted of seven at-large members, and a Common Council of 21 presided with 3 representatives per ward.[220] From the ratification of the 1896 charter until the 1950s, the common council was eliminated and the Board comprised 21 members with 14 at-large, subsequently changed to 8 at-large and 7 ward members.[221] In 2015 the city voted to reduce the number of councilors from 15 to 13, removing two at-large seats and creating a majority of ward-based seats.[217] The City Council passes the city's final budget, holds hearings, creates departments and commissions, and amends zoning laws.[222]

The city government comprises 33 offices, departments, and agencies, including utilities which are municipally owned and operated, Holyoke Gas and Electric and the Holyoke Water Works.[223]

In the Massachusetts House of Representatives, Holyoke is represented by Aaron Vega of the 5th Hampden District, which is conterminous with the city's boundaries. The city's state senator is Donald Humason Jr., of the 2nd Hampshire and Hampden District. In the United States Congress the city is represented by Richard Neal of the state's 1st district, and senators Elizabeth Warren and Edward Markey.

Politically, the city's largest block of voters are those belonging to no political party, however in recent years the city has largely supported candidates from the Democratic Party by a wide margin. In the 2012 elections, voters supported President Barack Obama over Mitt Romney by a margin of 76%-22%,[224] and Elizabeth Warren over incumbent Senator Scott Brown 70%-30%.[225] Holyoke elected an openly gay mayor, Alex Morse, in the 2011 municipal election.[226]

Voter registration and party enrollment as of February 1, 2017[227]
Party Number of voters Percentage
Democratic 11,123 43.58%
Republican 1,973 7.73%
Unaffiliated 12,108 47.43%
Minor Parties 322 1.26%
Total 25,526 100%

Public safety

Following the collapse of its industrial base in the 1970s, the city began to see civil unrest which gained notoriety both in state and national coverage; a wave of crime set in and the population declined nearly 20% from 1970 through 1990.[51][228] Since that time, crime has gradually declined, with an increased state police presence, and greater state socioeconomic support programs.[229] Since 2011, state and federal authorities have worked with the Holyoke Police Department in a Safe Neighborhood Initiative, attempting to suppress gang violence and creating greater after-school programming and opportunities for at-risk youth.[230] This demographic has been described by Massachusetts' Shannon Community Safety Initiative as those most affected by violent crime in the city. In 2016, the HPD estimated 3 out of 4 violent crimes were committed by an estimated 589 gang members between Holyoke and Chicopee, often with members being offenders and victims in turf battles over narcotics trafficking.[231]

Between 2010 and 2017, the violent crime rate for Holyoke decreased by approximately 15.3%, whereas the property crime rate declined by 23.8%; both rates remain more than twice their respective state averages, as of 2017.[232][233]

Media

Newspapers

The Republican, based in Springfield, and the Daily Hampshire Gazette of Northampton are the only daily newspapers regularly serving the city. Holyoke's own newspaper of record, the Holyoke Transcript-Telegram, which had been connected with the city under several variations of that name, ceased publication in 1993. Since this time Holyoke has not had its own daily news source but has been served by the weekly Holyoke Sun, managed by Turley Publications, which began publication in 1995.[234]

Since 2004 the area has also been covered by the bilingual monthly El Sol Latino; published independently out of Amherst, it covers the news of the Pioneer Valley's Puerto Rican community, with considerable coverage given to Holyoke.[235][236] The Republican also publishes a free Spanish-language weekly known as El Pueblo Latino, with distribution mainly in Springfield and Holyoke. Historically Holyoke has had numerous non-English news publications. Between 1874 and 1910 more than twelve French newspapers were published. Many of these were printed for only a matter of weeks, while the best documented, the weekly La Justice, was published from 1909 to 1964, being biweekly in its last six years.[237] Another prominent example was the Polish language Gwiazda, or Polish Weekly-Star, among the best documented of at least four such publications.[238][239]

Radio and television

Holyoke is served by radio stations in the Springfield market, including its own WCCH, Holyoke Community College's radio station, Mount Holyoke College's WMHC of South Hadley, and WMUA of UMass Amherst. A Christian radio station WREA also broadcasts Spanish-language religious programming from a studio in downtown Holyoke.

In addition to television stations serving the Springfield market, the city is also home to Holyoke Media, a public-access media non-profit.[240]

Film

In its history many smaller productions have been filmed in Holyoke, as well a handful of notable pictures including the neo-noir film Malice (1993) and mystery horror drama The Reincarnation of Peter Proud (1975). The city served as a filming location for the 1977 bodybuilding documentary Pumping Iron, as Mountain Park then held bodybuilding championships at its Clambake Pavilion. The Holyoke Merry-Go-Round was also the setting of a music video sequence in the 2007 British documentary Young@Heart, chronicling a New England chorus of elders from Northampton who cover classic and contemporary rock songs.[241]

Infrastructure

Healthcare

Emergency department of Holyoke Medical Center

The Holyoke Medical Center offers comprehensive health services, was named a top hospital by The Leapfrog Group in 2016, and in 2018 received multiple awards for its stroke care from the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, and the American Heart Association.[242][243] The city's Providence Behavioral Health Hospital offers a number of programs for psychiatric health as well, with emphasis on new substance abuse treatment programs.[244] It has been affiliated with the Sisters of Providence of Holyoke, who have operated medical facilities in the city since they first received their charter in 1892.[245]

The Soldiers' Home in Holyoke is one of two state-operated veterans healthcare facilities in the Commonwealth, offering longterm residential care as well as outpatient services to Massachusetts veterans. In 2018, the facility received high marks from the Department of Veterans Affairs, showing improved safety measures for elderly residents and no deficiencies in provided care.[246]

Telecom and public fiber

Since September 1997, the city's municipal utility, Holyoke Gas & Electric, has provided fiber optic high-speed internet service to municipal agencies, as well as commercial and industrial businesses.[247] This network would also play a decisive role in the location of the Massachusetts Green High Performance Computing Center in the city, due to its 1gbps service offered to commercial customers, and a dedicated link exceeding 10gbps for the facility's educational affiliates, on specialized networks such as Internet2.[248][249]

The municipal fiber line network has also served as an internet service provider to other area towns, including commercial customers in Chicopee, Metro Center Springfield,[250] and Greenfield (until 2017), as well as network operator to residential customers in Leverett.[251] With renewed public interest in net neutrality, civic groups have rallied for the city to offer a limited or complete rollout of this fiber-to-the-home service in Holyoke and Chicopee, however despite orders by the council to further explore this measure, no immediate plan for residential service has been given by the municipal utility as of 2018.[252][253]

Transportation

The Holyoke Transportation Center, serving riders of the PVTA and Peter Pan Buslines

Highways

Interstate highways serving Greater Holyoke include:

Immediately south of Holyoke is the Massachusetts Turnpike, accessible from exit 14 on I-91 South:

U.S. Highways serving Greater Holyoke include:

Massachusetts highways in the area include:

Bus and rail

A two-car train for the New Haven-Springfield Shuttle, which will begin commuter rail service to Holyoke in a pilot program starting Spring 2019

Several buses from the Pioneer Valley Transit Authority operate in the city including the Paper City Express with a route across town as well as routes to South Hadley, Westfield, Northampton, Amherst, and Springfield, connecting with Peter Pan Buslines at the Holyoke Transportation Center.

Passenger rail service returned to Holyoke in August 2015, after being absent since 1967.[254] Amtrak's Vermonter stops at the Holyoke station once a day in each direction, and a New Haven-Springfield Shuttle pilot program will commence in Spring 2019 linking Holyoke to adjacent stations in Northampton and Springfield, as far north as Greenfield and south as New Haven, Connecticut, with two trains operating in the morning and the evening.[255] The planned route will link provide service to commuters working in as far north as Greenfield and as far south as New Haven, Connecticut, with connections to New York City. The evaluation period of this pilot service will tentatively end in 2021 based on the results of the program.[256]

Freight rail service is provided to the city's industrial and warehouse railways in Springdale, South Holyoke, and The Flats by the Pioneer Valley Railroad, with connections to Pan Am Southern to Springfield and Greenfield, and a line to Westfield with connections to Southampton and the CSX system.[257] The PVRR also provides annual fall foliage passenger rides from the Holyoke Heritage State Park to Westfield, and an annual Santa Train at the park.[258][259]

Cycling and walking

Taken in its entirety, Holyoke has a moderate Walk Score of 55,[260] however walkability is highly variable between neighborhoods. For example, whereas the rural neighborhood of Rock Valley is entirely car-dependent with a score of 3,[261] the downtown area, with its grid central to stores, residences, and businesses, yields a Walk Score of 84.[262]

In an effort to make the mixed industrial and residential area around the canals more accessible, the city has in recent years constructed the eponymous Canalwalk, a series of walkways linking the downtown to The Flats and South Holyoke.[263]

Environment

Despite its industrial history, Holyoke contains no Superfund sites.[264] One of the greatest producers of pollution in the area was the former Mount Tom Station, a coal plant in Smith's Ferry. Citizens cited higher rates of asthma, attributing them to the plant and after many years of discussion it was finally shuttered in December 2014.[265][266] In October 2016 ground was broken at the site for the construction of a new solar farm.[267]

Flora and fauna

Due to a combination of MassWildlife's Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, as well as public health protections for the watershed of the Holyoke Water Works, much of the city's area west of Interstate 91 is designated for limited development and often requires additional permitting.[268] Of the city's 14,605 acres, approximate 8,105 along the Metacomet Ridge and Mount Tom Range have been identified as core habitat for the more than 242 species of vertebrates extant in the city's boundaries, and of this area about 52% of its acreage is managed by municipal, state, and federal agencies, with sustainable development plans in place to encourage development within the city's dense grid to the east. Of the wildlife identified in Holyoke, there are 29 species of fish, 21 of amphibians, 18 of reptiles, at least 160 species of birds including ruby-throated hummingbirds and bald eagles, as well as 42 species of mammals such as black bears and moose.[269] In recent years the area has seen a growing black bear population, with the occasional individual wandering into the city's downtown center.[270]

Global outreach

A memorial plaque in Apremont, France, to the American soldiers who fought and died there, and honoring the city's gift of water during the village's reconstruction.

Holyoke has in the past established sister city relationships with cities abroad, including-

Less formal relationships, representing symbolic and technical exchanges have also been established with the following cities-

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Holyoke's boundaries, those of Smith's Ferry being an exception, were first defined as the 3rd parish of West Springfield; identified on maps as "Ireland", "3rd Parish", or referred to as "Ireland Parish", for the number of Irish families who had settled there.
  2. ^ A complete catalog of this collection may be found in Skinner, William; Thompson, Elizabeth (1933). The Belle Skinner collection of old musical instruments, Holyoke, Massachusetts. Philadelphia: Beck Engraving Company. OCLC 64299108.
  3. ^ Referred to by contemporary Western documents in the Wade-Giles Romanization as "Ch'en Chin-t'ao" or "Chintao Chen".

References

  1. ^ a b Nutting, George M. (1937). Massachusetts; a guide to its places and people. Cambridge: The Riverside Press. p. 248. ...paper mills, attracted by cheap water-power from Hadley Falls Dam, have given the town the name of 'The Paper City.'
  2. ^ a b Basbanes, Nicholas A. On Paper: The Everything of Its Two-thousand-year History. New York: Random House. p. 100. ISBN 9780307279644. To exploit the full potential of a natural waterfall that drops fifty-eight feet within a fifth of a mile on the Connecticut River, nineteenth-century engineers built the industrial city of Holyoke around three circular canals that generated sufficient power to operate...twenty-eight mills, which at their peak accounted for nearly 90 percent of the paper produced in the United States. Though every one of these mills would close in the years following World War II, the economically stressed community still calls itself 'Paper City.'
  3. ^ a b Sullivan, Mark; Travis, William, eds. (2005). Fodor's Berkshires and Pioneer Valley. New York: Random House. p. 124. ISBN 9781400014675. Today, Holyoke--known as the 'birthplace of volleyball'--pays homage to Morgan with its Volleyball Hall of Fame.
  4. ^ a b "Burt DeGroot". Stanford. 19: 61. 1991. DeGroots and their sons, Ned and Don, commuted last October from San Clemente, Calif. to Holyoke, Mass., the birthplace of volleyball, for Burt's induction into the National Volleyball Hall of Fame.
  5. ^ For use in a publication from a different state, see "Holyoke, Massachusetts". Americana-Cities to See. The Indian Journal. Eufaula, Oklahoma. November 3, 1960. p. 6. Holyoke, Massachusetts, 'The Venice of America,' is a friendly, industrial city of 53,000 population in the Pioneer Valley, along the Connecticut River in Western Massachusetts.
    • For use in a trade publication, see "[Paper] Converters Abound in Holyoke- Why converters move to 'Venice of America'--case histories in the city which 'specializes in specialties'". Pulp & Paper. Miller Freeman Publications. 30: 182. 1956. The 'Venice of America'-- Holyoke, Mass.--has a number of what it calls 'incubator' buildings, ready for occupancy by paper converting plants...
    • For use in an anthropological/historical context, see "Archaeological signs give insight to Holyoke". At the Quadrangle. The Springfield Union. Springfield, Mass. February 10, 1982. p. 32. Using artifacts and slides, the two will trace what they call 'The Venice of America,' one of the earliest planned industrial communities.
    • For use by a sitting mayor, see Moriarty, Jo-Ann (January 29, 1984). "Things Looking Up for an 'Exciting Lady'". The Republican. Springfield, Mass. p. F-55. Mayor Ernest E. Proulx says cities are like women. 'And Holyoke is an exciting lady,' he often tells people when he is selling his city. 'There is a charm here... What other cities have what we have? The rolling topography, the mountains and reservoirs, the river, the canals-- Holyoke is the Venice of North America.
  6. ^ The Revised Ordinances of the City of Holyoke. Holyoke, Massachusetts: M. J. Doyle Printing Co. 1914. p. 159.
  7. ^ a b c d Holland, Josiah Gilbert (1855). History of Western Massachusetts; the counties of Hampden, Hampshire, Franklin, and Berkshire. Springfield, Mass.: Samuel Bowles. p. 70. On the 7th of July, 1786, the part of West Springfield now embraced in Holyoke was incorporated as the Third Parish of West Springfield, and was called 'Ireland,' and 'Ireland Parish,' from the fact that several Irish families were the first settlers of the territory, though there is no record of the date of their settlement
  8. ^ a b An act to incorporate the town of Holyoke, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1850
  9. ^ a b An act to establish the city of Holyoke, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1873
  10. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved 2017.
  11. ^ For contemporary use see Plaisance, Michael (April 3, 2018). "Holyokers asked to complete survey on Community Preservation Act". The Republican. Springfield, Mass. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018.
    • For historical use see "Holyokers in the New South". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. February 9, 1890. p. 5.
  12. ^ For use in different publications historical and contemporary, see "Holyoke Growing Pompus; Over its Booming Population". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. July 8, 1888. p. 6. The average Holyokian takes much pride in the rapid growth and development of the city
    • Malcolm, David J. (December 22, 1940). "Our Hill Town Neighbors". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. p. 19. ...it was clear to us that among real Holyokians the word Transcript and the word newspaper are used synonymously
    • "Class Notes". Princeton Alumni Weekly. November 22, 1946. p. 21. Charlie reuned that evening with Holyokian Bud Bagg (new vice-president of the Alumni Association of Conn. Valley)
    • Sousa, Frank (July 27, 1977). "Some big fish!". Springfield Union. Springfield, Mass. p. 35. Which must be some sort of record when you figure that two Holyokians, Holyokers, whatever, have taken the tourney two out of nine years...
    • "Pas dans notre Cour !" [Not In Our Backyard] (in French). The WEDA Coalition. December 12, 2015. Archived from the original on January 9, 2018. L'idée plus populaire chez les Holyokians est une centrale solaire avec loisirs accès à la rivière
  13. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Holyoke city, Massachusetts". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2017.
  14. ^ Breitbart, Myrna Margulies (2016). "'Lofty artists' vs. 'El Oro del Barrio': Crafting Community and a Sustainable Economic Future in the Paper City". Creative Economies in Post-Industrial Cities; Manufacturing a (Different) Scene. London and New York: Routledge.
  15. ^ "Emory Alexander Ellsworth". Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers. III (8): 480. October 1916. In 1879 Mr. Ellsworth left the firm of Davis & Ellsworth to become principal assistant and head draftsman for D. H. & A. B. Tower, of Holyoke, who were the largest firm of paper mill architects in the country at that time, and who designed no less than twenty paper mills in the city of Holyoke alone
  16. ^ Root, Joshua L. (Fall 2009). "Something Will Drop: Socialists, Unions and Trusts in Nineteenth-Century Holyoke" (PDF). Historic Journal of Massachusetts. 37 (2): 38.
  17. ^ "Who's Who in the Silk Industry-William Skinner". Silk. Vol. XV no. 3. Silk Publishing Company. March 1922. p. 44. One building alone is 1000 feet long--the largest silk mill, under one roof, in the world
  18. ^ Kinney, Jim (June 11, 2015). "'Paper Cluster' meeting hopes to invigorate old industry with new moves". MassLive. Springfield, Mass. Retrieved 2017.
  19. ^ "Holyoke, MA Paper Manufacturers". Yellow Pages. DexYP. Archived from the original on December 23, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  20. ^ a b For industrial vacuums see "RuWac USA". Retrieved 2018.
  21. ^ "ABOUT | MGHPCC". www.mghpcc.org. Retrieved .
  22. ^ "Invention of the Venturi Meter". Nature. 136 (3433): 254. August 17, 1935. Bibcode:1935Natur.136Q.254.. doi:10.1038/136254a0. Retrieved 2018. [The article] reproduces a letter from Herschel to the late Dr. Unwin describing his invention of the Venturi Meter. The letter is dated June 5, 1888, and addressed from the hydraulic engineer's office of the Holyoke Water Power Co., Mass. In his letter, Herschel says he tested a one-inch Venturi Meter, under 210 ft. head: 'I am now satisfied that here is a new and pregnant principle to be applied to the art of gauging fluids, inclusive of fluids such as compressed air, illuminating or fuel gases, steam, etc. Further, that the shape of the meter should be trumpet-shaped in both directions; such a meter will measure volumes flowing in either direction, which in certain localities becomes a useful attribute...'
  23. ^ Instrument Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-15A). Flight Standards Service. Skyhorse Publishing; Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation. 2013. pp. 5-17. ISBN 9781616083021.
  24. ^ Residential Rate Comparison - 750kWh, June 2017 (PDF) (Report). Hudson Light; Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company. June 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2018.
  25. ^ Serreze, Mary C. (July 20, 2016). "Palmer and Holyoke honored for 100% renewable energy commitment". MassLive. Springfield, Mass. Retrieved 2017.
  26. ^ "Baker-Polito Administration Awards $1 Million Renewable Energy Grant to Holyoke". MA Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs. Commononwealth of Massachusetts. March 11, 2017. Archived from the original on December 23, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  27. ^ Merolla, Lawrence M. and Crowther, Frank M. (1981) The Post Offices of Massachusetts, p. 43, North Abington, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Postal Research Society, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 81-84332
  28. ^ "Profile for Holyoke, Massachusetts, MA". ePodunk. Retrieved 2012.
  29. ^ Strycharz, Robb (1996-2006). "US-5: A Highway To History". Retrieved 2009.
  30. ^ holyoke.org: "Holyoke History Room Guest Lecture: John B. McCormick and the Hercules Turbine Water Wheel", March 5, 2014
  31. ^ Progress Publishing Company: "Engineering Mechanics: Electrical, Civil, Mechanical, and Mining Engineering, Volume 3: January-June 1883", p.231
  32. ^ "HolyokeHercules". www.frenchriverland.com. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ Furcolo, Foster. Holyoke Transcript-Telegram. Congressional Record. October 13, 1949. Extensions of Remarks. Page A6279 . 95 Cong. Rec. (Bound) - Volume 95, Part 1
  34. ^ Hubbard, Charles L.; Hawkins, Clark A. (1969). Theory of valuation. Scranton: International Textbook Co. p. 241.
  35. ^ [Query- "Holyoke Shares, Inc."], Massachusetts Corp. Card Search, Corporation Cards of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Commonwealth
  36. ^ a b Green, Constance McLaughlin (1939). Holyoke, Massachusetts; a case history of the industrial revolution in America. Yale Historical Publications. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 368.
  37. ^ "Service Off in Area For Up to 4 Hours- Only Holyoke, South Hadley Unaffected; Region Generally Calm During Cutoff". Springfield Union. November 10, 1965. p. 1.
  38. ^ "Jet Engine Saves Town from Dark". The Jersey Journal. Jersey City, New Jersey. November 11, 1965. p. 15. A business - as - usual atmosphere existed in Holyoke, Mass during the blackout Tuesday night because of a jet engine. Francis H. King, manager of Holyoke's Gas and Electric Department, said a jet peaking and emergency power unit saved the city from the darkness of its neighbors. The peaking unit, developed by Worthington Corp., is powered by a jet aircraft engine and is capable of generating 12,000 kilowatts in approximately two minutes after start-up, King added.
  39. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  40. ^ City of Holyoke. Open Space and Recreation Plan 2013-2018 (PDF) (Report). p. 38. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2017.
  41. ^ Talbot, M., 1911, Podokesaurus holyokensis, a new dinosaur of the Connecticut Valley: American Journal of Science, v. 31, p. 469-479
  42. ^ Plaisance, Mike (May 17, 2015). "Law passed to protect Dinosaur Footprints in Holyoke". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass.
  43. ^ "Elmwood Heights Group Forms Improvement Body". Springfield Union. January 30, 1957. p. 35. Residents of the Elmwood Heights area at an organization meeting tonight formed the Elmwood Heights Improvement Association and elected officers
  44. ^ "Holyoke 'Neighborhoods'" (PDF). Holyoke Planning Department. City of Holyoke. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  45. ^ "MACRIS inventory record for Elmwood, Holyoke". Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2014.
  46. ^ "Holyoke Innovation District". Massachusetts Technology Collaborative. Retrieved 2018.
  47. ^ Royal, Christina (February 13, 2018). "Holyoke Community College history is rooted in collaboration". The Republican. Springfield, Mass.
  48. ^ "An act to establish the boundary line between the cities of Northampton and Holyoke". Massachusetts General LawNo. Ch. 480 of June 9, 1909 (PDF). p. 498-502. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 30, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  49. ^ Holyoke Water Power Company v. City of Holyoke, VIII (MA Supreme Court 1900).
  50. ^ "Building News- Massachusetts". The American Architect. Vol. 97. May 11, 1910. Holyoke-...Architect Oscar Beauchemin has completed plans for block to be erected at Dwight St. and Clinton Ave. for Doryle Gauthier
  51. ^ a b c d "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  52. ^ "The Water Power Company Cottages". The Holyoke News. August 10, 1878. p. 2. The attention of persons desiring homes in this city is called to the advertisement of Wm. A. Chase, the energetic Agent of the Holyoke Water Power Company, who has commenced the experiment of constructing residences for citizens at cost figures on the most desirable and pleasant building lots owned by the company.
  53. ^ HLY.A, MACRIS, Massachusetts Historical Commission.
  54. ^ National Park Service (2008-04-15). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  55. ^ Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl (1982). H. H. Richardson, Complete Architectural Works. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. 323-324. ISBN 978-0262650151.
  56. ^ HLY.C, MACRIS, Massachusetts Historical Commission.
  57. ^ Heinrich, Thomas; Batchelor, Bob (2004). "Origins and Growth, 1872-1916". Kotex, Kleenex, Huggies: Kimberly-Clark and the Consumer Revolution in American Business. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press. pp. 21-22. ISBN 9780814209769.
  58. ^ Holland, Josiah Gilbert (1855). "Tower, David Horatio". History of western Massachusetts : the counties of Hampden, Hampshire, Franklin, and Berkshire. IV. Springfield, Mass.: Samuel Bowles and Company. p. 848. OCLC 865814412.
  59. ^ Holyoke Water Power Company v. City of Holyoke, VI (MA Supreme Court 1900).
  60. ^ Richards, Harold H (1911). Richards Standard Atlas of the City of Holyoke, Massachusetts. Springfield, Mass.: Richards Map Company.
  61. ^ "Plan of the New City at Hadley Falls". New City Weekly Times. Holyoke: J.F. Downing. 1849.
  62. ^ Report of the History and Present Condition of the Hadley Falls Company at Holyoke, Massachusetts. Boston: The Hadley Falls Company. 1853.
  63. ^ a b "The Public Humanist". The Valley Advocate. June 1, 2009. Retrieved 2012.
  64. ^ a b c "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (DP-1): Holyoke city, Massachusetts". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2017.
  65. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics: 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates (DP03): Holyoke city, Massachusetts". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2017.
  66. ^ "Part V. Statistical Report of Superintendent". Municipal Register for the City of Holyoke for 1913. Holyoke, Mass.: M.J. Doyle Printing Co. 1914. p. 185.
  67. ^ "City and Town Intercensal Datasets: 2000-2010". December 2, 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  68. ^ Barrows, Charles Henry (1911). The History of Springfield in Massachusetts for the Young. Springfield, Mass.: The Connecticut Valley Historical Society. p. 88. [T]he dwellers on the west side are spoken of in old records as 'our neighbors'...John Riley went as far away as the southern part of the present Holyoke and may be considered as the first settler of that city.
  69. ^ a b c Harper, Wyatt E. (1973). The Story of Holyoke. Centennial Committee of the City of Holyoke. OCLC 8060402.
  70. ^ a b Clark, Rusty (2006). Stories Carved in Stone: Holyoke, Massachusetts. West Springfield, Mass.: Dog Pond Press.
  71. ^ Juravich, Tom; Hartford, William F.; Green, James R. (1996). Commonwealth of Toil. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 63.
  72. ^ McMaster, Robert T. (2014). The Dyeing Room. Williamsburg, Mass.: Unquomonk Press. p. 56. [T]he workers of Holyoke who were most vocal about the unions were the Irish, English, and Italians, groups with which most French Canadians had little sympathy. Many of the French operatives had come to Holyoke directly from their family farms in Québec, ready to work, grateful for their jobs, and not inclined to make demands of the hand that fed them. Back home in Canada, parish priests and bishops preached frequently of the evils of unions...[and] a society slipping into godless socialism.
  73. ^ "John J. Prew is Dead in Holyoke; Was Prominent Builder, First French Aldermanic Member". Springfield Daily News. Springfield, Mass. February 18, 1916. p. 17.
  74. ^ a b Copeland, Alfred Minot, ed. (1902). "The French People of Holyoke, The City of Holyoke and the Factors in its History". "Our county and its people" : A history of Hampden County, Massachusetts. III. The Century Memorial Publishing Company. pp. 109-122. OCLC 5692695963.
  75. ^ "French Towns in the United States". American Leader. Vol. IV no. 11. American Association of Foreign-Language Newspapers, Inc. December 11, 1913. p. 673.
  76. ^ "Table P-8 Ancestry of Persons: 1980, Holyoke city, Hampden County, Mass.". 1980 Census of Population and Housing: Census tracts. Springfield-Chicopee-Holyoke, Mass.-Conn (Report). US Census Bureau. July 1983. p. P--30.
  77. ^ a b "2010 Census American FactFinder". Retrieved 2013.
  78. ^ Duany, Jorge (2017). Puerto Rico: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. pp. 139-140.
  79. ^ Koch, Thomas (August 17, 1973). "Migrant Tobacco Workers Charge Breach of Contract". Springfield Union. Springfield, Mass. p. 12. Puerto Rican migrant laborers working in Western Massachusetts and Connecticut tobacco fields have sent a letter containing over 1000 signatures to the Puerto Rican governor and Department of Labor alleging breaches of contract and demanding better working conditions...Contracts are negotiated for Puerto Rican workers between the Puerto Rican government and the Shade Tobacco Growers Agricultural Association...before World War II Greater Springfield teenagers did much of the work on Western Massachusetts tobacco...the importation of seasonal workers...is a relatively recent procedure
  80. ^ Gerson, Jeffrey; Hardy-Fanta, Carol, eds. (2014) [2002]. "Holyoke". Latino Politics in Massachusetts: Struggles, Strategies and Prospects. Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 9781135672140.
  81. ^ a b Moriarty, Jo-Ann (July 24, 1983). "Holyoke's Hispanics span economic spectrum". The Republican. Springfield, Mass. p. B-1.
  82. ^ Moriarty, Jo-Ann (February 28, 1984). "Proulx appoints six Hispanic advisers". Springfield Union. CXXI (48). Springfield, Mass. p. 1.
  83. ^ "Holyoke". Team Policing, Seven Case Studies (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Police Foundation. August 1973. p. 39. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 19, 2018.
  84. ^ "Carlos Vega Collection, 1948-1980". Special Collections and University Archives. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017.
  85. ^ Market Facts- Springfield MSA (PDF) (Report). Davidson Media Group. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 26, 2012.
  86. ^ Holyoke, Massachusetts Religious Statistics, Sperling's BestPlaces.
  87. ^ "About Us". Diocese of Springfield, Massachusetts.
  88. ^ St. Jerome Parish, Holyoke, ParishesOnline
  89. ^ Immaculate Conception Parish, Holyoke
  90. ^ United Church of Christ of Holyoke, Holyoke, Massachusetts
  91. ^ First Lutheran Church of Holyoke
  92. ^ [thesteepleinthefalls.org The Steeple in the Falls], United Methodist Church of Holyoke, South Hadley, and Granby
  93. ^ Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church, Metropolis of Boston
  94. ^ "Sons of Zion Celebrates 110 Years". The Western Mass. Jewish Ledger. Springfield, Mass. March 2014. Archived from the original on June 4, 2017.
  95. ^ "Massachusetts, United States". The Jewish Virtual Library. American Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017.
  96. ^ Warren, Ernest E. (1913). "From Holyoke, Mass". The Typographic Journal. Vol. III no. 7. Indianapolis: International Typographic Union of North America. p. 469. As it is the largest paper manufacturing city in the world, it is worth more than a passing notice from printers.
  97. ^ Taber, Elwyn L. (1913). "Holyoke, Mass". Western New England. Vol. III no. 7. Springfield, MA: Springfield Board of Trade. p. 303. [Holyoke] is the largest producer of fine writing paper in the world, manufacturing enough fine paper every day to carpet two square miles.
  98. ^ Gelbert, Doug (1994). "Yankee Candle Company". Company Museums, Industry Museums, and Industrial Tours. McFarland & Company. p. 112.
  99. ^ Borges-Méndez, Ramón (1994). Urban and Regional Restructuring and Barrio Formation in Massachusetts: The Cases of Lowell, Lawrence and Holyoke (PDF) (Master of City Planning). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. p. 150. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 29, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  100. ^ Kinney, Jim (July 24, 2017). "Holyoke Machine Co., oldest manufacturer in Paper City, shuts down and plans to auction off equipment". Retrieved 2018.
  101. ^ Plaisance, Mike (April 28, 2017). "'Not in production at moment' owner says of Paper City Brewery in Holyoke". The Republican. Springfield, Mass. Archived from the original on 2017-09-21.
  102. ^ Plaisance, Mike (May 8, 2018). "Dan's Power Plant in Holyoke spreads health without sacrificing yumminess". The Republican. Springfield, Mass. Archived from the original on 2018-05-08.
  103. ^ Stern, Lisa (May 17, 2016). "Fauxmaggio:Fake cheese till you make cheese". Boston Globe. Boston. Archived from the original on June 5, 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  104. ^ "Why EMC Wants to Build a High Performance Data Center in Holyoke". Xconomy. June 23, 2009. Retrieved 2012.
  105. ^ "Living in Western New England". Careers at ISO New England. ISO New England. Archived from the original on May 4, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  106. ^ "Holyoke French Company Announces Plans to buy Holyoke Power Plant". The Springfield Republican. The Republican Company. February 9, 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  107. ^ Graham, George (April 26, 2018). "Collaborative effort to grow leafy greens in hydroponic units on vacant lot in Holyoke". The Republican. Archived from the original on April 26, 2018.
  108. ^ "Holyoke Sets Precedent, Public Market Opens To-Day". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. July 24, 1917. p. 10. When the public market opens this morning it will mean that Holyoke is the first city in Western Massachusetts to adopt this plan of bringing producer and consumer together.
  109. ^ "Holyoke Farmers Market". Farm Fresh Rhode Island. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help).
  110. ^ "Aldermen Want City Farm Probe". Springfield Union. Springfield, Mass. May 10, 1956. p. 52.
  111. ^ "Holyoke's Cattle. A Growing Fondness for Blooded Jerseys". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. July 22, 1882. p. 5.
  112. ^ "Whiting Cattle Victims of Fire". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. October 4, 1919. p. 4.
  113. ^ Gram, A. David (February 22, 1982). "Farmer looks at city 'progress'". Springfield Union. Springfield, Mass. p. 4.
  114. ^ "Nuestras Raices". Livability Resources. Partners for Livable Communities. Archived from the original on July 21, 2018.
  115. ^ Doherty, Kathleen (2015). Urban Agriculture and Ecosystem Services: A Typology and Toolkit for Planners (Master of Regional Planning). University of Massachusetts Amherst. pp. 70-71. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  116. ^ Jonathan Bates - From Bare Ground to Urban Paradise on One-Tenth of an Acre. Biodiversity for a Livable Climate. 14 May 2015 – via Youtube.
  117. ^ For Yale lectures see- "Multifunctional Carbon-Sequestering Agroforestry". Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. Yale University. 2016. Archived from the original on September 14, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  118. ^ Raver, Anne (February 13, 2013). "Their Trip to Bountiful". The New York Times. New York, NY. Archived from the original on July 1, 2018.
  119. ^ Schoenberg, Shira (January 31, 2014), "Massachusetts grants 20 medical marijuana licenses, but only 2 in Western Massachusetts", The Republican, Springfield, Mass., archived from the original on January 11, 2018
  120. ^ Plaisance, Mike (July 16, 2018). "East Coast Pharms, Canna Provisions, Holyoke Gardens set for Holyoke reviews". The Republican. Springfield, Mass.
  121. ^ Dokoupil, Tony (June 30, 2018). "Holyoke, Massachusetts, is ready to welcome the marijuana industry with open arms". CBS This Morning. CBS News. Archived from the original on July 1, 2018.
  122. ^ "Holyoke Public Schools, Holyoke, Massachusetts". Hps.holyoke.ma.us. Retrieved 2012.
  123. ^ "High School/Dual Enrollment". Holyoke Community College. Retrieved .
  124. ^ Wyner, Joshua; Deane, KC; Jenkins, Davis; Fink, John (2016). The Transfer Playbook: Essential Practices for Two- and Four-Year Colleges (PDF) (Report). Community College Research Center (CCRC), Teachers College, Columbia University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  125. ^ Grand Opening of Culinary Arts Institute, City of Holyoke. 2018.
  126. ^ Kinney, Jim (July 11, 2016). "Holyoke Community College culinary center seen as transformative". MassLive. Springfield, Mass. Retrieved 2017.
  127. ^ Sutherland, Amy (November 15, 2017). "Case Studies- Architects Complete LEED Silver Renovation Of Historic Library In Massachusetts". CEI Materials. Preservation Magazine.
  128. ^ a b "Holyoke Public Library History Room & Archives". Holyokehistory.blogspot.com. February 26, 2004. Retrieved 2012.
  129. ^ "Paper City Scribblings: August 2006". Papercityscribblings.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012.
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  131. ^ For motion pictures and the Royal Hungarian Court Orchestra- "At the Holyoke Theaters". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. February 8, 1903. p. 20. Holyoke Opera House. Monday evening--P. K. Matus's Royal Hungarian court orchestra...Saturday matinee and evening--Lyman K. Howes's moving pictures...One of the interesting announcements of the week is the return this season of Lyman K. Howes [sic] moving pictures. These have been seen at the Holyoke opera house for two seasons, and have pleased large audiences both times
    • For other vaudeville stage acts- "Holyoke Plays of the Week; The Three Offerings at the Holyoke Opera House". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. April 26, 1903. p. 20. Monday evening-David Warfield is 'The Auctioneer.' Tuesday evening-Ezra Kendall in 'The Vinegar Buyer'
  132. ^ "Flames Sweep Former Holyoke Opera House". Springfield Union. Springfield, Mass. October 30, 1967. p. 1.
  133. ^ Save Outdoor Sculpture! (1993). "Nuns of the Battlefield, (sculpture)". SOS!. Smithsonian. Retrieved 2010.
  134. ^ Jacob, Kathryn Allmong. Testament to Union: Civil War monuments in Washington, Part 3. JHU Press, 1998, p. 125-126.
  135. ^ Sears, Jacqueline (2015). Legendary Locals of Holyoke. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9781439650783.
  136. ^ "Obituary - Clark W. Bryan". The Inland Printer. Vol. XXII no. 6. Chicago. March 1899. p. 746.
  137. ^ "When 'Good Housekeeping' Was Almost A, Well, Social Movement". Boston: WGBH-FM. May 6, 2016. Archived from the original on June 15, 2018.
  138. ^ Newhouse, Thomas (2000). The Beat Generation and the Popular Novel in the United States, 1945-1970. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 52.
  139. ^ "Raymond Kennedy, Novelist, Dies at 73". The New York Times. February 23, 2008.
  140. ^ "Novelist Raymond Kennedy dies in N.Y." The Republican. Springfield, Mass. February 29, 2008.
  141. ^ "News and Notes- The Kraszna-Krauz Photographic Book Awards". History of Photography. Taylor & Francis. 29 (4): 390. 2005.
  142. ^ Erdman, Andrew. Queen of Vaudeville: The Story of Eva Tanguay, Cornell University Press, 2012 pp. 30-32, 36-38, 47, 93-94, 100-03, 114-15, 139-43, 212-14, 222-23.
  143. ^ a b Rosen, Jody (December 1, 2009). "Vanishing Act; In search of Eva Tanguay, the first rock star". Slate. Archived from the original on March 13, 2017.
  144. ^ a b Slide, Anthony (2012). The Encyclopedia of Vaudeville. University Press of Mississippi.
  145. ^ a b Plaisance, Mike (October 31, 2017). "$43 million latest estimate to renovate Victory Theatre in Holyoke". MassLive. Springfield, Mass. Archived from the original on November 23, 2017.
  146. ^ "Annual Outing of the New England Street Railway Club". The Street Railway Bulletin. Vol. XXI. January 1921. p. 259.
  147. ^ Burke, Mike (May 22, 2013). "Valley Arena lives in Holyoke's heart 50 years after fire". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. Archived from the original on April 22, 2015.
  148. ^ "Duke Ellington and Sarah Vaughn; Arena". Springfield Union. Springfield, Mass. October 21, 1950. p. 24. Two star attractions will be offered at the Valley Arena Gardens tomorrow in Duke Ellington, occupying the bandsland with his world famous orchestra, and Sarah Vaughan, recording artist and star of radio and television...
  149. ^ "Holyoke". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. March 9, 1926. p. 9. The increased sale of tickets the past few days for the concert to be given by the Boston Symphony orchestra at the city hall tomorrow night assures that there will be but few empty seats. As it is probably the only time the orchestra will come to Holyoke it affords a chance for music lovers that should not be missed
  150. ^ "Results for "City Hall" "Holyoke"". Leon Levy Digital Archives, New York Philharmonic. 2018. Archived from the original on September 17, 2018.
  151. ^ "Notable Concert at Mount Holyoke; New York Philharmonic Orchestra to Appear at College Tonight". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. October 26, 1926. p. 5. This is the first appearance of a great orchestra at the college, and marks the beginning of the new system which replaces the plan by which the students attended concerts in the Holyoke city hall
  152. ^ "Holyoke's Music Season; To Open, As Uusual, [sic] With Philharmonic Concert". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. October 15, 1916. p. 12.
  153. ^ "Holyoke Concert Season". Holyoke Chamber of Commerce; Holyoke Music Club. 1915. Archived from the original on September 17, 2018.
  154. ^ Bednar, Joseph (January 23, 2018). "Gateway City Arts Is a Place to Meet -- in More Ways Than One". BusinessWest.
  155. ^ El Puerto Rico, the Rich Port at Holyoke's Victory Theater. Connecting Point, WGBY (PBS). 7 June 2018 – via Youtube.
  156. ^ Moorhouse, Donnie (March 8, 2016). "Mountain Park, other venues, ready for summer concerts". MassLive. Springfield, Mass.
  157. ^ Noble, Clifton (Jr.) (October 11, 2017). "Holyoke Civic Symphony enters second half-century". The Republican. Springfield, Mass.
  158. ^ Thibodeau, Kate Navarra (June 8, 2009). "William Skinner & Holyoke's Water Power". The Valley Advocate.
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  160. ^ [Query- "Children's Museum at Holyoke, Inc."], Massachusetts Corp. Card Search, Corporation Cards of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Commonwealth
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  170. ^ Sousa, Frank (June 4, 1986). "Old New England-- land of world records". Springfield Union. Springfield, Mass. p. 8. Now along comes Bob Thibodo of Northampton who an landed [sic] 11 pound, four ounce fish taken below the Holyoke Dam, breaking the world record by three ounces. Thibodo weighed the fish at LeWay Bait and Tackle in Belchertown, an official weighing station...The fish did not win the Holyoke Water Power Co. Shad Derby as Bob did not weigh the fish in time.
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  186. ^ "Algemene Informatie" [General Information] (in Dutch). Volleybalvereniging Holyoke. October 19, 2015. Retrieved 2018. Volleybalvereniging Holyoke is opgericht op 12 december 1960. Holyoke is genoemd naar de gelijknamige plaats in de staat Massachusetts in de Verenigde Staten.
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  202. ^ "Golf in Great Favor- Prosperous Clubs in Springfield, Holyoke and Northampton". Boston Herald. April 22, 1900. p. 30. The Holyoke Golf Club is just entering upon its second season. It has one of the best courses in the state at the foot of Mt. Tom, from which has aptly taken its name. The links is pretty rocky in places, however, and it is proposed to do some blasting to get rid of this obnoxious feature
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  204. ^ Prunty, Brendan. "The Barclays: Plainfield architect Donald Ross' journey had humble beginnings in Boston". The Star Ledger. Newark, N.J. Archived from the original on September 17, 2016. after leaving Oakley, Ross arrived at Essex in 1911 to become the new head professional and redesign the existing course
  205. ^ "Mt. Tom Golf Club". The American Golfer. Vol. XIII. p. 136. President Wyckoff remarked that the club and the city of Holyoke are to be congratulated in that Donald Ross, the links expert, has made his permanent home in Holyoke, the club, particularly, in having Mr. Ross as chairman of its green committee
  206. ^ "Banks Is Serving 36th Year as Mount Tom Pro". Springfield Union. Springfield, Mass. September 7, 1953. p. 15.
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  209. ^ Recreation Management Plan (Report). Holyoke Water Works. November 2012. Archived from the original on December 15, 2016.
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  211. ^ Gone But Not Forgotten: Mt. Tom Ski Area. Connecting Point, WGBY. 2 February 2017 – via Youtube.
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  214. ^ Holyoke Code of Ordinances, §50-34, Chief of police--Head of department.
  215. ^ Holyoke Code of Ordinances, Title III §19, Establishment and composition of fire department, appointment, terms and powers of fire commissioners.
  216. ^ Holyoke Code of Ordinances, Title II §6, Election of city officials; failure to elect; vacancies; disability of clerk or treasurer.
  217. ^ a b Fay, Tony (November 3, 2015). "Morse re-elected in Holyoke; four-year mayoral term approved". WWLP. Archived from the original on July 21, 2018.
  218. ^ Asiamah, Nancy (January 2, 2018). "Holyoke Mayor Alex Morse swears in for first 4 year term Mayor Morse was sworn in by the city clerk". WWLP-22 News.
  219. ^ Plaisance, Mike (November 5, 2015). "Holyoke Council winners reflect on election, work ahead". The Republican. Springfield, Mass. Archived from the original on November 6, 2015.
  220. ^ "First City Election Was the Hottest Ever; W. B. C. Parsons Elected Mayor Over R. P. Crafts--New City Hall More Expensive Than Intended". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. September 2, 1923. p. 6D.
  221. ^ Gonter, Nancy H. (December 31, 1987). "Board name change sought by aldermen". Springfield Union-News.
  222. ^ Holyoke Code of Ordinances, Title III, Legislative Department.
  223. ^ "City Directory". City of Holyoke. Retrieved 2018.
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  225. ^ "US Senate - 2012 Massachusetts Election Results - Brown vs. Warren". Boston.com. Retrieved 2018.
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  228. ^ "Holyoke belies name; violence shakes up once-tranquil area". Dallas Morning News. Dallas: UPI. September 1, 1980. p. 15A.
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  235. ^ "¡10 Años! Seguimos Siendo Un Periódico Diferente" [10 Years! We Continue to be A Different Kind of Newspaper]. El Sol Latino. Amherst, Mass. November 2014. p. 2.
  236. ^ Valdivia, Angharad (2008). "The Rise of Spanish-Language Newspapers". Latina/o Communication Studies Today. p. 53. In addition there are presently thousands of weekly and monthly community oriented publications that serve local Latina/o readers in the United States, for example El Sol Latino, dialogo Bilingüe, and Elité all serve the rural Latino communities across Western Massachusetts
  237. ^ Haebler, Peter (1976). Habitants in Holyoke: The Development of the French-Canadian Community in a Massachusetts City, 1865 - 1910 (PhD). University of New Hampshire. p. 255. OCLC 163261568.
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  264. ^ "Search for Superfund Sites Where You Live". U.S. EPA. August 12, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
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  268. ^ Open Space and Recreation Plan for Holyoke, 2019-2025 (Report). Conway School of Landscape Design. May 2, 2018. p. 53.
  269. ^ "Wildlife". Holyoke Gas & Electric. Archived from the original on July 28, 2018.
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  271. ^ Plaisance, Mike (April 1, 2014). "Former Holyoke mayor Daniel Szostkiewicz recalls Ukraine trip". Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  272. ^ Plaisance, Mike (April 26, 2014). "School exchange program linking Holyoke, Tralee, Ireland benefit of sister-city relationship: Mayor Alex Morse". Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved 2016.
  273. ^ "Visiting Snow-Shoe Clubs, Welcomed at the Paper City--A Cordial Reception at the City Hall with Speeches and Responses". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. January 26, 1888. p. 5.
  274. ^ "Snowshoe Clubs Honored; How the French Residents of Holyoke Received Their Canadian Friends". New York Herald. New York. January 26, 1888. p. 9.
  275. ^ "Snow Shoe Clubs at Holyoke". Boston Herald. January 26, 1888. p. 2.
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  277. ^ "Visiting Holyoke Mills; Chintao Chen, Representative of the Chinese Government, Making a Special Study of the Paper Industry of Holyoke". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. May 24, 1906. p. 13.
  278. ^ Tsao, Y. S. "The Relation of the Returned Students to the Chinese Revolution". Journal of Race Development (The Journal of International Relations/Foreign Affairs). 4 (1): 103. Very few students from Europe and America were members of the 'Tung Men Hwei,' [sic] and judging from their actions only Mr. C. T. Wang, Drs. Chen Hui Wang and Chintao Chen from Yale were the only possible ones
  279. ^ "Flood Prevention in China". Santa Fe Trail Magazine. Vol. 2 no. 5. May 1914. p. 63. Dr. Chen Chin-Tao is now on his way to America to represent his country in negotiations [for $20,000,000 of bonds for engineering work to prevent floods in the Huai River Valley]
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  281. ^ "Irish Envoys at Holyoke; an Enthusiastic Reception". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. November 10, 1906. p. 7.
  282. ^ Ford, George B. (January 1921). "Rural Town Planning in France". The American Magazine of Art. Vol. XII no. 1. American Federation of Arts. Apremont in the Meuse which used to be such a thriving village, now only knee high, is receiving a community center building from the school children of Holyoke, Mass.
  283. ^ "St. Mihiel in beeld". Den Grooten Oorlog Battlefield Tours (in Dutch). Archived from the original on May 19, 2018.
  284. ^ Woollcott, Alexander (September 8, 1922). "Back in St. Mihiel". The American Legion Weekly. Vol. IV. p. 8. At Apremont, however, the chief gift from Holyoke is no monument, but what the French themselves would call something 'plus pratique.' It is the entire water system, modern and complete...It has even been adjusted so that water can be piped into each of the new houses as they go up
  285. ^ "Apremont Way Between Holyoke and Westfield Is Formally Dedicated". Springfield Republican. Springfield, Mass. June 6, 1930. [In a letter from the mayor of Apremont] 'I can never thank too much,' it read, 'in the name of the commune of Apremont La Forget [sic] the brave soldiers of the 26th American division and especially the 104th infantry, who really contributed to the deliverance of our village...we have never forgotten you here-everything is a reminder of your generous presence. The village square is named Place d'Holyoke, in memory of the city of that name...the main street is the Rue Belle Skinner, given this honor in memory of the great friend of the commune, a woman with a big heart
  286. ^ Alex B. Morse, Carmen Yulín Cruz (28 April 2018). Mayor Carmen Yulin Cruz Receives the Key to the City. Holyoke Media – via Youtube.
  287. ^ Guerra, Cristela (April 26, 2018). "San Juan, P.R., mayor lifts up young women in Holyoke". Boston Globe.

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