Top: Vara?din Castle; Center left: Korzo; Center right: Croatian National Theater; Bottom: Vara?din Arena
Motto(s): Probitati et bonis artibus|
(English: For Honesty and Good Virtues)
|o Mayor||Ivan ?ehok (Ind.)|
|o City Council|
|o City||59.45 km2 (22.95 sq mi)|
|o Urban||34.22 km2 (13.21 sq mi)|
|Elevation||173 m (568 ft)|
|o Density||790/km2 (2,000/sq mi)|
|o Urban density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|o Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||HR-42 000|
|Area code(s)||+385 42|
|Patron saints||St. Nicholas|
Vara?d?n (Croatian pronunciation: [?âra?di:n] or [?ardin]; also known by other alternative names) is a city in Northern Croatia, 81 km (50 mi) north of Zagreb. The total population is 46,946, with 38,839 on 34.22 km2 (13.21 sq mi) of the city settlement itself (2011). The centre of Vara?din County is located near the Drava River, at . It is mainly known for its baroque buildings, music, textile, food and IT industry.
The total population of the city is 46,946 and it includes the following settlements:
The total area is 59.45 km2 (22.95 sq mi) (2001).
The first written reference to Vara?din, whose historical name is Garestin, was on 20 August 1181, when King Béla III mentioned the nearby thermal springs (Vara?dinske Toplice) in a legal document.
Vara?din was declared a free royal borough in 1209 by the Hungarian King Andrew II. The town became the economic and military centre of northern Croatia. Due to Ottoman raids, the town was structured defensively around the old fortress, and acquired the shape of a typical medieval Wasserburg. In the early 13th century, the Knights Hospitaller (Croatian: Ivanovci) came to Vara?din, where they built the church and a monastery.
At the end of the 14th century, Vara?din fortress passed to the hands of the Counts of Celje. Over the following centuries Vara?din had several owners, the most influential being Beatrice Frankopan, Margrave Georg of Brandenburg, who built the town hall; the last was Baron Ivan Ungnad, who reinforced the existing fortification. At the end of the 16th century Count Thomas Erd?dy became its owner, assuming the hereditary position of Vara?din prefects (?upan), and the fortress remained in the ownership of the Erd?dy family until 1925.
In 1756, the Ban Ferenc Nádasdy chose Vara?din as his official residence, and Vara?din became the capital of all of Croatia. It hosted the Croatian Sabor and the Royal Croatian Council founded by Empress Maria Theresa.
The periods of the Reformation and the counter-reformation had a great influence on Vara?din. With the arrival of the Jesuits, the school (gymnasium) and the Jesuit house were founded, and churches and other buildings were built in the Baroque style. In the 18th century Vara?din was the seat of many Croatian noblemen, and in 1756 it became the Croatian administrative centre. The fire of 1776 destroyed most of the town, resulting in the administrative institutions moving back to Zagreb.
Vara?din was the seat of the Vara?din County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, ruled by the Kingdom of Hungary after the compromise of 1867. The Hungarian stamp, issued in 1881 shows both names.
By the 19th century Vara?din had been completely rebuilt and expanded, with flourishing crafts and trade, and later the manufacture of silk and bricks. The theatre, music school, and fire department were founded.
In the 20th century Vara?din developed into the industrial centre of Northwestern Croatia. The textile manufacturer Tivar was founded in 1918. In the Croatian War of Independence, 1991, Vara?din suffered directly for only for a few days, because the huge Yugoslav People's Army base quickly surrendered, resulting in a minimal number of casualties, and providing weapons (worth $600m) for the Croatian army.
Vara?din represents the best preserved and richest urban complex in continental Croatia.
The Old Town (fortress) is an example of medieval defensive buildings. Construction began in the 14th century, and in the following century the rounded towers, typical of Gothic architecture in Croatia, were added. Today it houses the Town Museum. The fortress is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 5 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2001.
In 1523, Margrave Georg of Brandenburg built the town hall in late baroque style, with the Vara?din coat of arms at the foot of the tower, and it has continued in its function until the present day. There is a guard-changing ceremony every Saturday.
Vara?din's Cathedral, a former Jesuit church, was built in 1647, and is distinguished by its baroque entrance, eighteenth-century altar, and paintings.
There are many baroque and rococo palaces and houses in the town. Worth particular mention is Vara?din's Croatian National Theatre, built in 1873 and designed by the famous Viennese architects Herman Helmer and Ferdinand Fellner.
A baroque music festival has been held annually in Vara?din since 1971, and attracts some of the finest musicians and their fans from Croatia and the world. Recommended to visitors is also the historical street festival ?pancir fest every September.
The city features its old city guard, named Purgari, in various city ceremonies as well as the weekly ceremony of the 'change of the guards' in front of the city hall. Additionally, Vara?din police officers patrol on bicycles in the warmer months.
The Old Town keep is one of the biggest monuments in the city of Vara?din and one of its biggest tourist attractions. It is located in the north-western section of the city core. Today the keep houses the Vara?din City Museum.
The keep is first mentioned in the 12th century and it is believed to be the center of Vara?din county life. The keep underwent numerous ownership changes and reconstructions over the centuries.
The Old Town was featured on the now defunct 5 Kuna bill. On the bill, the picture is a mirror image of the actual appearance of the keep.
The cemetery date back to 1773 and it was long time an ordinary place until 1905, when Herman Haller had an idea to make it more beautiful and park-like with large trees and alleys for citizens to stroll through. The reconstruction of the cemetery was done between 1905 and 1947 when it got the form for which it later became one of the most beautiful cemeteries in Europe. It is an outstanding example of landscape architecture and protected cultural and natural park.
Vara?din is connected with A4 highway that runs between Zagreb (south) and ?akovec / Hungarian border (just north). Vara?din and Zagreb are also connected with the southern part of the state road D3 which serves as an alternative to tolled highway. Vara?din is also directly connected to Slovenian border (north-east) and to Podravina / Slavonia counties (west) with the state road D2, to Krapina-Zagorje County (east) with the state roads D35 and D24 (road that connects to D3 in Novi Marof, just south from Vara?din) and to Me?imurje County (just north) with the northern part of the state road D3. The town is fully encircled by the bypass which represents the parts of D2 and D3 roads. The bypass was constructed gradually between the mid-1970s and mid-2000s (oldest, north part was built between 1978 and 1979, east part was built during the second half of the 1980s and the newest, south-west part was completed in 2007).
Vara?din is also hub for bus transportation enterprise "AP Vara?din" which offers regional, distant (multi-regional) and occasional passenger bus transportation service between Vara?din and large number of towns across the country but also offers international lines.
Vara?din's railway station is one of the largest and most important train stations in northern Croatia. It represents the intersection of three Croatian railway corridors that are used for both passenger and freight traffic. All of the rail corridors that start or end in Vara?din are single-tracked and non-electrified. It is the terminus for one local line (L201 connecting Golubovec), one regional line (R202 connecting Dalj via Koprivnica, Virovitica and Osijek) and also lies on R201 line through which trains directly connect the town with Zagreb and most of Krapina-Zagorje County (on south) and with Me?imurje County (just north). Although the largest number of direct passenger trains from Zagreb to Vara?din run via the R201 corridor (through the north-western part of the country), an alternative way to travel by train between those two cities is via the R202 line between Vara?din and Koprivnica, and the M201 line between Koprivnica and Zagreb (through the north-eastern part of the country). Although this route requires transfer in Koprivnica in some cases, journeys by this route may take shorter travel time.
|Climate data for Vara?din|
|Record high °C (°F)||19.1
|Average high °C (°F)||3.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||-0.2
|Average low °C (°F)||-3.7
|Record low °C (°F)||-26.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||38.9
|Average precipitation days||9.2||9.3||10.9||12.9||13.2||14.0||12.1||10.9||10.3||10.4||11.1||11.2||135.4|
|Average snowy days||13.5||9.9||3.4||0.5||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||3.7||9.4||40.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||84.1||78.6||73.2||69.1||69.6||70.9||71.7||74.8||79.3||81.7||84.7||85.7||76.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||77.5||113.0||148.8||180.0||238.7||246.0||279.0||260.4||195.0||139.5||84.0||65.1||2,027|
|Percent possible sunshine||30||43||45||49||57||59||65||65||57||47||34||29||51|
|Source: Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service|
Vara?din is one of the few Croatian cities whose industry did not directly suffer from the war in 1991. Besides textile giant Varteks, it also has nationally important food (Vindija), metal, and construction industries. The Information Technology and financial and banking sector as are well developed. Further economic development has been encouraged with the creation of a free investment zone.
The city of Vara?din is easily accessible by major roads from all sides. The road infrastructure is good and the main highway connection is A4, connecting the Hungary border-crossing point in Gori?an with Zagreb, as well as the coast of the Adriatic Sea via A1/A6. A2 is also accessible through the Zagorje region. In addition to the highways, there is also an east-west state route connecting the city to the Slovenian border, and Koprivnica, Osijek and the east part of Croatia. The city is connected to the suburbs and villages surrounding it with a public transportation system of buses. The city also has a train and bus station, which are both located about a 10-minute walk from the center. The trains are mainly used for cargo, due to the lack of investment in the country's train infrastructure. Vara?din's bus service is of high quality and use, it offers regular service to many local, domestic and international routes, as well as many additional seasonal routes to the Adriatic Sea. There is also taxi service available on-call which is situated by the bus station. In the outskirts of the city there is also a small recreational airport, used mainly for sightseeing and farming purposes.
Today Vara?din is a popular destination for the summer holidays. The city has numerous areas of interests ranging from cultural areas (reflected by many museums, galleries and theaters in the area), shopping centers in the downtown core, various sports and recreation facilities, also a rich history in cuisine. The close of the tourist season is marked by two annual festivals. The annual ?pancirFest begins at the end of August and ends in September (lasts for 10 days). At this time. the city welcomes artists, street performers, musicians and vendors for what is called "the street walking festival".
Vara?din is also the host of the Radar Festival, which hosts concerts at the end of summer. It has already hosted various popular artists as Bob Dylan, Carlos Santana, The Animals, Manic Street Preachers, Solomon Burke and many others.
Vara?din is a city of numerous professional and semi-professional sports clubs. Vara?din Arena, located near the Drava River, was one of the hosts of the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship held in Croatia.
Vara?din has a rich and developed system of education, especially for a city of its size. It has seven elementary schools, 10 high schools (2 public gymnasiums, 2 private gymnasiums, trade schools, and other specialized high schools for various paths), 4 higher schools (equivalent to college) and 2 faculties (Faculty of Organization and Information Technology and Geotechnical faculty) that are part of the University of Zagreb.
This list contains some of the notable people who were either born in Vara?din, lived in the city for a longer time or were in some significant way related to it.
Vara?din is twinned with: