Voiceless Postalveolar Fricative
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Voiceless Postalveolar Fricative

Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative [?], the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative [?], the voiceless retroflex fricative [?], and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative [?]. This article discusses the first two.

Voiceless palato-alveolar fricative

Voiceless palato-alveolar fricative
ʃ
IPA number134
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʃ
Unicode (hex)U+0283
X-SAMPAS
KirshenbaumS
Braille? (braille pattern dots-156)
Listen

A voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or voiceless domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in many languages, including English. In English, it is usually spelled ⟨sh⟩, as in ship.

Postalveolar fricative [?, ?]

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, the letter esh introduced by Isaac Pitman (not to be confused with the integral symbol ⟨?⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is S.

An alternative symbol is ⟨?⟩, an s with a caron or há?ek, which is used in the Americanist phonetic notation and the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, as well as in the scientific and ISO 9 transliterations of Cyrillic. It originated with the Czech orthography of Jan Hus and was adopted in Gaj's Latin alphabet and other Latin alphabets of Slavic languages. It also features in the orthographies of many Baltic, Finno-Lappic, North American and African languages.

Features

Features of the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed (partially palatalized) postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the front of the tongue bunched up ("domed") at the palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe ? [d] 'donkey'
Albanian shtëpi [?t?'pi] 'house'
Arabic Modern Standard[1] 'sun' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ? 'dog'
Asturian xera [?e.?a] 'work'
Azerbaijani ?eir [?ei?] 'poem'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [kla] 'picture'
Basque kaixo [kajo] 'hello'
Bengali ?? [b] 'all' See Bengali phonology
Breton chadenn ['?a.dn] 'chain'
Bulgarian ? [ju'na?ki] 'heroically' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan xocolata [?uku'lat?] 'chocolate' See Catalan phonology
Czech ka?e ['ka] 'mash' See Czech phonology
Dutch[3] sjabloon 'template' May be [s?] or [?] instead. See Dutch phonology
English a sheep 'a sheep' See English phonology
Esperanto ?elko ['?elko] 'suspenders' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese sjúkrahús [ukrah?us] 'hospital' See Faroese phonology
French[4] cher 'expensive' See French phonology
Finnish ?ekki [?ek:i] 'check' See Finnish phonology
Galician viaxe ['bja?e] 'trip' See Galician phonology
Georgian[5] ? ['i] 'quibbling'
German Standard[6] schön [ø?:n] 'beautiful' Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[6] See Standard German phonology
Greek Cypriot ?? [?'?:im] 'ugliness' Contrasts with /?/ and /?:/
Pontic Greek
Hebrew ? 'peace' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi ?? [k] 'doubt' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian segítség ['i:t:e:?] 'help' See Hungarian phonology
Ilocano siák [?ak] 'I'
Irish sí [?i:] 'she' See Irish phonology
Italian Marked accents of Emilia-Romagna[7] sali ['?ä:li] 'you go up' Apical non-labialized; may be [s] or [?] instead.[7] It corresponds to [s] in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Standard[8] fasce ['fä?:e] 'bands' See Italian phonology
Kabardian ? [d] 'donkey' Contrasts with a labialized form
Kabyle ciwer [?iw?r] 'to consult'
Kashubian[9] nasz see Kashubian language.
Latvian ?alle ['?al:e] 'scarf' See Latvian phonology
Limburgish Maastrichtian[10] sjat [t] 'darling' Laminal post-alveolar with an unclear amount of palatalization.[11]
Lingala shakú [?akú] 'grey parrot'
Lithuanian ?arvas ['r?v?s] 'armor' See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian ? [?t?] 'what' See Macedonian phonology
Malay syarikat [?arikat] 'company'
Maltese xjismek [?ismek] 'what is your name'
Marathi ? ['b'd] 'word' See Marathi phonology
Mayan Yucatec ko'ox [ko?o?] 'let's go'
Mopan kax [k?:?] 'chicken'
Mutsun ra?ma?te [mt?] 'having acne'
Neapolitan scugnizzo [?ku'?:itt?s?] 'urchin'
Occitan Auvergnat maissant [me'] 'bad' See Occitan phonology
Gascon maishant [ma'?an]
Limousin son [] 'his'
Persian [:h] 'king' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna siano ['?än] 'hay' /?/ and /?/ merge into [?] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /?/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiceless retroflex sibilant
Lubawa dialect[12]
Malbork dialect[12]
Ostróda dialect[12]
Warmia dialect[12]
Portuguese[13][14] xamã ['m] 'shaman' Also described as alveolo-palatal [?].[15][16][17] See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ? [?e:?] 'lion'
Romani Vlax de? [de?] 'ten'
Romanian ?efi [?ef?] 'bosses' See Romanian phonology
Sahaptin ?í? [?i?] 'mush'
Scottish Gaelic seinn [?ei?] 'sing' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Silesian Gmina Istebna[18] [example needed] These dialects merge /?/ and /?/ into [?]
Jablunkov[18] [example needed]
Slovene ?ola ['?ó:lä] 'school' See Slovene phonology
Somali shan [?an] 'five' See Somali phonology
Spanish Chilean echador 'boastful' Corresponds to [t] in other dialects. See Spanish phonology
New Mexican
Northern Mexico[19]
Panamanian
Southern Andalusia
Rioplatense ayer [ä'?e] 'yesterday' May be voiced [?] instead. See Spanish phonology and yeísmo
Swahili shule [?ule] 'school'
Tagalog siya [?a] 'he/she' See Tagalog phonology
Toda[20] [p] 'language'
Tunica ?íhkali ['?ihkali] 'stone'
Turkish güne? [?y'ne] 'sun' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[21] ? ['x?] 'chess' See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu [k'ri:a:] 'thank you' See Hindustani phonology
Uyghur [?æhær] 'city'
Walloon [tu] 'knit fabric'
Welsh Standard siarad [':rad] 'speak' See Welsh phonology
Southern dialects mis [mi:?] 'month'
West Frisian sjippe ['p?] 'soap' See West Frisian phonology
Western Lombard Canzés fescia [fe?a] 'nuisance'
Yiddish ? [v?snaftl?x?] 'scientific' See Yiddish phonology
Yorùbá ?i [?i] 'open'
Zapotec languages Tilquiapan[22] xana [?ana] 'how?'

In various languages, including English and French, it may have simultaneous labialization, i.e. [], although this is usually not transcribed.

Classical Latin did not have [?], though it does occur in most Romance languages. For example, ⟨ch⟩ in French chanteur "singer" is pronounced /?/. Chanteur is descended from Latin cantare, where ⟨c⟩ was pronounced /k/. The ⟨sc⟩ in Latin scientia "science" was pronounced /sk/, but has shifted to /?/ in Italian scienza.

Similarly, Proto-Germanic had neither [?] nor [?], yet many of its descendants do. In most cases, this [?] or [?] descends from a Proto-Germanic /sk/. For instance, Proto-Germanic *skip? ("hollow object, water-borne vessel larger than a boat") was pronounced /'ski.p/. The English word "ship" /p/ has been pronounced without the /sk/ the longest, the word being descended from Old English "scip" /?ip/, which already also had the [?], though the Old English spelling etymologically indicated that the old /sk/ had once been present.

This change took longer to catch on in West Germanic languages other than Old English, though it eventually did. The second West Germanic language to undergo this sound shift was Old High German. In fact, it has been argued that Old High German's /sk/ was actually already [s?k], because a single [s] had already shifted to [s?]. Furthermore, by Middle High German, that /s?k/ had shifted to [?]. After High German, the shift most likely then occurred in Low Saxon. After Low Saxon, Middle Dutch began the shift, but it stopped shifting once it reached /sx/, and has kept that pronunciation since. Then, most likely through influence from German and Low Saxon, North Frisian experienced the shift.

Then, Swedish quite swiftly underwent the shift, which resulted in the very uncommon [?] phoneme, which, aside from Swedish, is only used in Colognian, a variety of High German, though not as a replacement for the standard High German /?/ but a coronalized /ç/. However, the exact realization of Swedish /?/ varies considerably among dialects; for instance, in Northern dialects it tends to be realized as [?]. See sj-sound for more details. Finally, the last to undergo the shift was Norwegian, in which the result of the shift was [?].

The sound in Russian denoted by ⟨?⟩ is commonly transcribed as a palato-alveolar fricative but is actually a laminal retroflex fricative.[]

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative

Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
?
?
IPA number151 414 402A 429
Encoding
X-SAMPAr\_-_0_r

The voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the post-alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), this sound is usually transcribed ⟨?⟩ (retracted constricted voiceless [?]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\_-_0_r.

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Irish[23] tree [t?i:] 'tree' Realization of /r/ after word-initial /t/, unless it is preceded by /s/ within the same syllable.[23] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[24] crew [ku?] 'crew' Only partially devoiced. It is a realization of /r/ after the word-initial fortis plosives /p, k/, unless they are preceded by /s/ within the same syllable.[25] See English phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 18.
  3. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 46.
  4. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  5. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  6. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51)
  7. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 73.
  8. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  9. ^ Treder, Jerzy. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Rastko. Archived from the original on 2014-11-02.
  10. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  11. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:156). The authors state that /?/ is "pre-palatal, articulated with the blade of the tongue against the post-alveolar place of articulation". This makes it unclear whether this sound is palato-alveolar (somewhat palatalized post-alveolar) or alveolo-palatal (strongly palatalized post-alveolar).
  12. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Kara? & Kolis (1995), p. 62.
  13. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  14. ^ Medina (2010).
  15. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000).
  16. ^ Silva (2003), p. 32.
  17. ^ Guimarães (2004).
  18. ^ a b D?browska (2004:?)
  19. ^ Cotton & Sharp (2001:15)
  20. ^ Ladefoged (2005:168)
  21. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  22. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  23. ^ a b "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). Uni Stuttgart. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  24. ^ Roach (2004), pp. 240-241.
  25. ^ Roach (2004), p. 240.

References


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Voiceless_postalveolar_fricative
 



 

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